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Photon Therapy

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#1 mmalik

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Posted 26 February 2013 - 04:52 PM

For those of us needing photon therapy every so often with the help of devices like CMOS, CCD, Retina, etc., let’s talk about our cohort, the Photon. Those with terminal affliction need this therapy lifelong, while some stay in remission for varying periods of time but are predisposed to recurrence, needing this therapy later in life.


Photon is an elementary particle that exhibits both wave-like and particle-like properties [described as quantum mechanics] and is represented in one of the following three ways on paper:

Posted Image


In the grand scheme of things, it is basically a boson (one of two classes of elementary particles, the other being fermions).

Posted Image


Let’s look at one specific example where a photon is released.


Example: When a hydrogen electron falls from its third to second lowest energy level it gives off a photon with a wavelength of 656nm (nanometers), which we refer to as H-alpha, and try to capture with our modified sensors since our retina is not so sensitive to H-alpha frequency photons (nebulae being a major source). Note: Visible light has photons with frequency in the range of about 380nm to about 740nm.


Posted Image

In above example, delta energy (E) being released is a photon (hv) with a frequency (v) of 656nm with a Planck’s constant (h).


Let's keep the talk going with your insights into this little particle or no particle. Thx
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#2 bluedandelion

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Posted 05 March 2013 - 02:13 AM

A wave and a particle
Were walking side by side
One said to the other
Which one of us am I?

- From Einstein the Genius, Album: Tasting the Salty Air, by Shanghaied on the Willamette
http://www.shanghaie...he_salt_air.htm

#3 mmalik

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Posted 18 January 2014 - 03:26 AM

A wave and a particle
Were walking side by side
One said to the other
Which one of us am I?


Talking of wave-particle duality, there are striking similarities between Planck’s linking of energy (E) and frequency (f) of electromagnetic wave, i.e., E=hf, as quantization of energy (in the form of a particle—photon), and Einstein’s linking of energy (E) and mass (m) of an object, i.e., E=mc², as mass-energy equivalence, where ‘h’ is Planck’s constant and ‘c’ is speed of light constant, respectively.


In our case, i.e., astrophotography, light-matter interaction is an effect where electrons are emitted from matter, i.e., atoms when they absorb energy from light, i.e., photons.


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#4 m1618

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Posted 18 January 2014 - 10:10 AM

Stumped.

How about that "0" point. Null?
That point where delta -> undefined v.
Duality and Conservation of energy in general.

These Physical Constants existing instantly from going from absence to presence. Delta of darkness to light.

A beautiful boson indeed... and these eyeballs we have to capture as many as we can with our retina (via CMOS,CCD,glass...) all measured in mm and inches.

#5 scodavis

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Posted 20 January 2014 - 11:08 PM

Photons and bosons and quarks, oh my!

#6 mmalik

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Posted 09 May 2014 - 03:14 AM

Photons come in different wavelengths, or colors. A look at photons pertient to astrophotography; in order...


Ultraviolet (UV)........................10 nm - 400 nm (nanometers) "Invisible"
Hydrogen-beta (H-beta)............486.1 nm
Oxygen-III (OIII)......................500.7 nm
Hydrogen-alpha (H-alpha).........656.3 nm
Nitrogen-II................................658.4 nm
Sulfur-II....................................672.4 nm
Infrared (IR).............................700 nm - 1 mm "Invisible"


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#7 mmalik

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Posted 10 May 2014 - 03:38 PM

Following photon types fall within visible spectrum:


Hydrogen-beta (H-beta)............486.1 nm Visible
Oxygen-III (O-III)....................500.7 nm Visible
Hydrogen-alpha (H-alpha).........656.3 nm Visible
Nitrogen-II (N-II).....................658.4 nm Visible
Sulfur-II (S-II)..........................672.4 nm Visible

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#8 mmalik

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Posted 11 May 2014 - 03:02 AM

All photons of the visible spectrum:


Violet..........380–450 nm
Blue............450–495 nm [H-beta: 486.1 nm]
Green..........495–570 nm [O-III: 500.7 nm]
Yellow.........570–590 nm
Orange........590–620 nm
Red.............620–750 nm [H-alpha: 656.3 nm, N-II: 658.4 nm, S-II: 672.4 nm]

#9 mmalik

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Posted 11 May 2014 - 03:16 AM

All photons of light:


Gamma ray.........<0.02 nm
X-ray..................0.01 nm – 10 nm
Ultraviolet...........10 nm – 400 nm
Visible..............390 nm – 750 nm
Infrared..............750 nm – 1 mm
Microwave...........1 mm – 1 meter
Radio..................1 m – 100,000 km

#10 mmalik

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Posted 02 December 2014 - 02:35 AM

We capture photons all the time with our retinas and sensors. Ever wonder how/where a photon gets created?

To create a photon, we'll need to look at an electron. Electron revolves around the nucleus in different energy orbits. Orbits away from the nucleus have higher energy, while orbits close to the nucleus have lower energy. A photon gets emitted as electron falls from a higher to lower energy orbit.

Reverse is also true... absorbing a photon will make an electron jump to a higher energy level.
 
The concept is no different from H-alpha model above, but that's just one color; there is more to astronomy than H-alpha :)

What about other colors; what determines the color of the released photon? It is the frequency of the photon that determines its color (photon inverse frequencies listed above...) So what determines its frequency? It is the distance of the downward orbital fall that determines the frequency, hence color of the released photon.
 
In simple terms, photons are interwoven with electrons of an atom.
 
You may also wonder what determines the speed of the released photon? Answer is NOTHING. Photon only knows one speed, and that's the speed of light. Photon gets created traveling at that speed and it gets released from an atom a the same speed!
 
 
15306442454_c33eb6e023_m.jpg
 
Energy delta (E) released is a photon (hv) with frequency (v) and constant (h)
 
Source: Wikimedia

Edited by mmalik, 04 December 2014 - 05:53 PM.


#11 mmalik

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Posted 04 December 2014 - 03:07 AM

"Light" and "radiation" are two quite opposite characteristics of a photon...
 
 
While low energy, "visible light" photons might be pleasing to our retinas and sensors, high energy, "invisible" photons are lethal in increasing magnitude of the energy that they carry from Ultraviolet-rays to X-rays to Gamma-rays.
 
 
For example, a gamma ray photon can carry over 'hundred thousand' times the energy of a photon of visible light. Remember, not all photons are friendly!

Edited by mmalik, 04 December 2014 - 05:15 PM.


#12 austin.grant

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Posted 04 December 2014 - 09:45 AM

Good info, though you may want to cite your sources when you borrow charts and graphics.



#13 mmalik

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Posted 06 December 2014 - 03:14 PM

On one side of the visible spectrum phonons are ionizing radiation photons (Ultraviolet-rays/X-rays/Gamma-rays), on the other are non-ionizing radiation photons (Infrared/Microwaves/Radio waves).

 

Ionizing radiation can displace electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them. Such ionization is quite harmful to human body.

 

Effects of non-ionizing radiation on human body is debatable. Regards

 

 

Note: Chart source updated above...


Edited by mmalik, 06 December 2014 - 03:15 PM.


#14 mmalik

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Posted 06 December 2014 - 03:16 PM

Getting little deeper, let me ask you this... what's common between photons and gravity?



#15 rydberg

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Posted 08 December 2014 - 04:31 PM

Getting little deeper, let me ask you this... what's common between photons and gravity?

Both are fields mediated by spin zero particles, i.e. , bosons.

Gravitons, anyone? :)



#16 exmedia

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Posted 09 December 2014 - 12:19 PM

Is there any way for a lay person (me) to understand how "force carrier" particles actually work?  Let's say the electromagnetic force, whose force carrier is described as the photon.  I turn on an electromagnet near an iron bar, the current through the magnet's coil builds intertwined electrical and magnetic fields around itself, and emits massless photons that interact with the iron atoms thereby causing an attraction between the magnet and the iron bar.  How?  How does a massless "particle" moving at light speed from the magnet to the iron bar cause those two macro objects to pull toward each other with such a powerful force? 


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#17 mmalik

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Posted 09 December 2014 - 04:17 PM

Rydberg/Exmedia, let me preface where I was headed with my question above (I'll try commenting on some good points/questions you both bring up, in upcoming posts...)

 

 

I look at it this way; although light (photons) and gravity (gravitons?) are two completely different entities, ironically they share some characteristics among them.

 

 

Before we get to their similarities, let's define gravity first.

 

 

Gravity is inherent property of the matter or in other words is the only force acting on all particles with mass, and by which all physical bodies attract each other. It is a force that binds matter together, and makes astronomical bodies round (not cubes or diamonds, other shapes :))

 

 

Consider gravity a 'grand' or 'macro' scale force that keeps objects in orbit. 'Micro' scale force at atomic level is NOT gravity. Force that holds an electron in orbit around its nucleus has nothing to do with gravity. Attractions in an atom are between oppositely charged particles, where same charge particles will repel each other. Gravity on the other hand is NEVER repulsive, it is always attracting or pointing inward.

 

 

Of light and gravity, which one is stronger... gravity! Gravity bends light.

 

 

Now let's get to some similarities between light and gravity:

 

 

1. Both light (photons) and gravity (gravitons?) are massless

 

2. Both light and gravity travel at the same speed through space, i.e., speed of light

 

3. Both light and gravity have infinite range

 

 

Additions/corrections/other points of view welcome...


Edited by mmalik, 09 December 2014 - 04:44 PM.


#18 rydberg

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Posted 09 December 2014 - 04:44 PM

Is there any way for a lay person (me) to understand how "force carrier" particles actually work?  Let's say the electromagnetic force, whose force carrier is described as the photon.  I turn on an electromagnet near an iron bar, the current through the magnet's coil builds intertwined electrical and magnetic fields around itself, and emits massless photons that interact with the iron atoms thereby causing an attraction between the magnet and the iron bar.  How?  How does a massless "particle" moving at light speed from the magnet to the iron bar cause those two macro objects to pull toward each other with such a powerful force? 

It can be complicated, but thanks to Feynman, we can give a graphical representation (this is the simplest case...).  Imagine two electrons (e-).  The repel each other.  How do they know that they need to repel each other?  They exchange a photon (i.e. the "mediation" taking place).  While esoteric (and there is much swept under the rug here), it works, better than anything else. 

Try here: http://voyager.eggle...rts/parts1.html

 

Gravity can be thought of having has similar features, i.e. masses exchanging a graviton to experience attraction.  Unfortunately that picture runs into trouble as it cannot be reconciled with Einstein's theory of General relativity (which, on the other hand, has been proved correct since 1916....).

 

So, in few words, no, I cannot explain to a lay person :)

Marco



#19 exmedia

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Posted 09 December 2014 - 10:21 PM

So, in few words, no, I cannot explain to a lay person :)

Marco

 

Yeah, I kind of expected that... :bawling:

 


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#20 mmalik

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Posted 10 December 2014 - 03:52 AM

Is there any way for a lay person (me) to understand how "force carrier" particles actually work?  Let's say the electromagnetic force, whose force carrier is described as the photon.  I turn on an electromagnet near an iron bar, the current through the magnet's coil builds intertwined electrical and magnetic fields around itself, and emits massless photons that interact with the iron atoms thereby causing an attraction between the magnet and the iron bar.  How?  How does a massless "particle" moving at light speed from the magnet to the iron bar cause those two macro objects to pull toward each other with such a powerful force? 

 

Marco, let me take a stab at it...

 

 

There are four fundamental interactions:

 

 

1. Gravitational (mentioned above...) [Weakest]

2. Electromagnetic (the one you mention in your experiment...) [Stronger]

3. Strong nuclear [Strongest]

4. Weak nuclear

 

 

Your question regarding #2, in terms of quantum physics, is about electromagnetic field being quantized, and such interactions being the result of photon (boson) exchanges. And YES, such interactions are quite strong at all levels, micro or macro. Remember gravity is the weakest of the four fundamental forces. Being weakest, gravity can bend light; just imagine what a stronger force can do.

 

IMPORTANT: Electrons are bound by electromagnetic wave mechanics into orbitals around atomic nuclei to form atoms.

 

 

Something even stronger than electromagnetism is #3, the strong nuclear interaction which binds protons and neutrons together. Another version of #3 is where a gluon (boson) holds quarks together to form protons, neutrons, and other composite (hadron) particles.

 

 

Weak nuclear interaction is caused by emission or absorption of W and Z bosons and is responsible for both the radioactive decay, and the nuclear fusion of subatomic particles.

 

 

Regards


Edited by mmalik, 10 December 2014 - 02:43 PM.


#21 woodscavenger

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Posted 10 December 2014 - 10:41 AM

Equations, math, graphs, charts, theory.........for me photon therapy is this:

 

Distant light source-->light travelling across the universe to my telescope-->primary-->secondary-->EP-->cornea-->lens-->retina-->cones/rods-->brain= RELAXATION and JOY!



#22 mmalik

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Posted 10 December 2014 - 06:22 PM

Word 'quantum' whose plural is 'quanta' means packet or particle.

 

 

Term quantum mechanics is thrown around quite often without much explanation; it is a branch of physics that deals with mechanics (or motion) of atomic and subatomic particles.

 

 

Then it gets little complicated where quantum mechanics delves into dual particle-like and wave-like behavior and interaction of energy and matter. Scale at which quantum mechanics works is small, nanoscopic [atoms, and elementary particles], and where speeds approach the speed of light.

 

 

Classical mechanics on the other hand deals with motion of large, astronomical objects [stars, planets, galaxies], and where speeds do NOT approach the speed of light.

 

 

Much of what ware are talking falls within the realm of quantum mechanics. Regards


Edited by mmalik, 10 December 2014 - 06:42 PM.


#23 mmalik

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Posted 12 December 2014 - 04:40 AM

Never forget that (visible) light 'is' a form of electromagnetic radiation in the grand scheme of electromagnetic spectrum; it just so happens that we are able to see it. Others we don't (radio waves, microwaves, infrared radiation, ultraviolet radiation, X-rays and gamma rays)

 

 

In the quantum theory of electromagnetism, electromagnetic radiation consists of photons, responsible for all electromagnetic interactions. The energy of an individual photon is quantized and is represented by Plank's equation (below), where energy of a photon (E) is proportional to its frequency (v), h being Planck's constant.

 

15977471126_0fb1f4aeb1_o.jpg

 

Plank's frequency-energy equivalence and Einstein's mass-energy equivalence bear striking resemblance. The mass of an object is a measure of its energy content and is represented by Einstein's equation (below), where energy of an object (E) is proportional to its mass (m), c squared being Einstein's constant—the speed of light.

 

16003299095_0ac006c6a8_o.jpg


Edited by mmalik, 12 December 2014 - 08:04 PM.


#24 mmalik

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Posted 16 December 2014 - 04:33 AM

Although speed of light was first measured by Ole Rømer in 1676, it was Alert Einstein who postulated in 1905 that the speed of light is independent of the motion of the light source. Actual postulate as follows:

 

 

 

The Principle of Invariant Light Speed – "... light is always propagated in empty space with a definite velocity [speed] c which is independent of the state of motion of the emitting body." (from the preface). That is, light in vacuum propagates with the speed c (a fixed constant, independent of direction) in at least one system of inertial coordinates (the "stationary system"), regardless of the state of motion of the light source.



#25 wfektar

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Posted 17 December 2014 - 06:42 PM

Is there any way for a lay person (me) to understand how "force carrier" particles actually work?  Let's say the electromagnetic force, whose force carrier is described as the photon.  I turn on an electromagnet near an iron bar, the current through the magnet's coil builds intertwined electrical and magnetic fields around itself, and emits massless photons that interact with the iron atoms thereby causing an attraction between the magnet and the iron bar.  How?  How does a massless "particle" moving at light speed from the magnet to the iron bar cause those two macro objects to pull toward each other with such a powerful force? 

That's in fact a really good question, one that has an classically unsatisfying answer (the quantum world is a strange one). Those massless particles have zero mass at rest, but still carry momentum because they're not at rest. It is this momentum transfer that results in attractive and repulsive forces. Repulsive forces are easy enough to understand intuitively -- an exchange of baseballs, footballs, artillery rounds, etc certainly lead to repulsion. Attractive forces ... well ... if you look at the equations you'll find that at the quantum level time can take either signature (+ or -). Those momentum exchanges with negative time signatures (going "backwards" in time) result in attractive forces. Think of a catcher and a pitcher, only go backwards in time. Is this what "really" happens? I have no idea, in fact I don't even know whether that's a scientific or philosophical question -- but that's how the math works out.








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