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The Classic Moon

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#126 AllanDystrup

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Posted 26 March 2020 - 02:37 AM

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11-Day Moon
Insularum

    

    
     Panning down south now, to the region S of the Montes Carpatus part of the Imbrium Basin rim. In the upper part of the field of view is the trough beyond the Imbrium excavation boundary, which further south gradually transits into the E part of the Procellarum Basin.

    
     There are some rough highland plains in this field, which were thought to be of volcanic origin, but Apollo 14 rock samples (impact shocked breccias) from the plains north of Fra Mauro revealed these to be pre-Imbrian crust covered by a blanket of debris and melt ejected by the Imbrium Basin impact.

    
      The area has been extensively flooded in the upper Imbrian and later Eratosthenian lava flows, embaying the highland plains and leaving only traces of ancient pre-Nectarian (Fra Mauro, Bonpland, Euclides P) and Nectarian (Gambart, Reinhold B, Parry) craters. Some of the lava puddles have received separate names: Aestuum, Insularum, Cognitum, Nubium, -- but at least Aestuum and Insularum are probably not separate impact basins, but rather flooded low-lying regions created by other impacts.

    
     The upwelling magma has fractured the floor in some craters (Encke), and was accompanied both by explosive fire fountain volcanism creating large patches of dark pyroclastic deposits (Aestuum, Insularum), and also by more quiet eruptions leaving shield domes with summit pits such as the π Milichius dome, the Hortensius domes and several others.

    
   The recent large Copernicus impact of course dominates the view, with its central peaks, hummocky floor and bright terraced walls surrounded by a ring of impact melt and a far-flung web of crushed highland rock stretched out in bright rays across the dark mare lava of Insularum, E Procellarum and Cognitum. The landing site of Apollo 12 was selected to be right on top of one such Copernicus ray, in the hope of sampling both old pre-Nectarian bedrock material and younger mare lava. The sampled mare basalt was indeed younger than the Apollo 11 Tranquility Base mare by ~0.5 Byr (borderline Eratosthenian/Imbrian: 2.3 Byr) and the Copernicus ray material was ~0.8 Byr, which provided a good dating of the Copernicus impact.

    

11DY Moon 2020-03-05 Insularum.jpg
*click*

    

     -- Allan

    

 


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#127 AllanDystrup

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Posted 27 March 2020 - 01:59 AM

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11-Day Moon
Humorum

    

    
     Moving further south along the 11-day terminator, I now place the Humorum Basin towards the SW, with the Nubium region up NE; Nubium may be an ancient pre-Nectarian basin, but if so, it is far from well defined (the scarp/ridge Rupes Mercator could be what’s left of the SW excavation rim?).

    
    The whole area has been lava flooded in the upper Imbrian and Eratosthenian epochs, with the basalt in the Humorum Basin forming a deep mare showing an inner wrinkle ridge ring plus a clear excavation rim, complete with subsidence scarps (Liebig), arcuate rilles (Hippalus) and floor fractured craters at the shores (Gassendi, Vitello). 
    

    In contrast the Nubium region only has a shallow lava covering, with the (sometimes only partial) rims of many Nectarian craters still protruding (Opelt, Gould, Lubiniezky, Agatharchides, Wolf, Pitatus, Hesiodus...). The Rimae along the inner wall of Pitatus were probably created by magma intrusion that flooded and uplifted the crater floor at the shore of Nubium. A few mare stretch-marks can be seen in the Nubium area (Rimae Hesiodus, Agatharchides), and also some volcanic formations, most prominent the Agatharchides Megadome (“The Helmet”), the φ dome at Kies crater and the dome located inside the lava flooded crater Capuanus.

    
     Bullialdus is a striking (sic) early Eratosthenian impact in the new-formed shallow mare surface of S Nubium; It is surrounded by a ring of impact melt and an ejecta carpet rich in mare basalt (any light rays of deeper bedrock anorthosite have faded by now).

    

11DY Moon 2020-03-05 Humorum.jpg

*click*

    

     -- Allan

 

PS: And oh yes, there's also that Epidemic Swamp (Palus Epidemiarum) south of Nubium. Takes on a rather new meaning in these COVID-19 days. Take care and stay safe!


Edited by AllanDystrup, 27 March 2020 - 02:11 AM.

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#128 AllanDystrup

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Posted 29 March 2020 - 02:42 AM

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11-Day Moon
Clavius

    

    
     Ending my sweep along the 11-day lunar terminator, I arrive once more at the Southern Cratered Highlands, now with the large crater “diamond” of Tycho-Longomontanus-Maginus-Clavius well lit up at the center, and the “unusual” pair of craters Hainzel-Schiller towards the terminator at the W. I’ve described these mostly old (pre-)Nectarian craters before, so tonight I'll focus on the area around the S. Pole.

    
     The far South Polar Region is also dominated by old Pre-Imbrian impacts: from Bettinus and Kircher towards the SW all along the lunar rim to Scott and Amundsen at the SE. There are two relatively young craters in the south cratered highlands: Copernican Tyco and Eratosthenian Moretus, and if you draw a line through the centers of these craters and extend it to the lunar limb, you arrive at the ancient pre-Nectarian crater Malapert.

    
     The latitudinal libration tonight is -1°, so not really favorable for zooming in on the exact location of the S. Pole, -- but I can see the Malapert Mountain ridge between Malapert and Shoemaker to the S. This ridge rises to a height of 5 km with the peak at ~0° longitude, having the N side always in sunlight while the S side facing Shackleton crater at the S. Pole is in perpetual darkness. Mt. Malapert has been proposed as the target site for a lunar expedition to the S. Pole, with the near side providing continuous solar power and radio communication,  while the far side can provide  possible water resources, and would also be ideal for radio astronomy, shielded from Earths radio noise.

    

11-DY Moon S. Pole.jpg

*click*

    

     -- Allan


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#129 AllanDystrup

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Posted 01 April 2020 - 06:34 AM

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Endymion - Humboldtianum

    

    

     I’ve swept down the lunar terminator at medium magnification several times during the past months, so now I consider the Moon well covered in overview mode, -- apart from the Orientale Basin area at the far western rim and also the lunar mare lava types (which I plan to study as soon as possible). In the meantime, I’d like to zoom in at higher magnification on some selected lunar terrain features that I find especially interesting.

     
     First I'll focus on the area around Endymium crater, which I observed on March 27. 2020 in nautical dusk, when the Moon was at up at 19° altitude in Aries towards the W. Both seeing and transparency were just above medium, although the transparency suffered a bit towards the horizon from high atmospheric humidity. The observation was made using my 4” f/6.4 refractor with an FFC @ 4x barlow and my CM3 video camera for ~200x mag. live video:

    

Moon 2020-03-27 Setup.png
*click*

    

     -- Allan



#130 AllanDystrup

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Posted 01 April 2020 - 06:45 AM

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Endymion area.

    

    

     Endymion is a relatively old pre-Imbrian impact that smacked into the S wall of an ancient (unnamed) pre-Nectarian crater, still “sticking out” up north and bordering on another PN crater: De La Rue. The floor of Endymion was lava covered in upper Imbrium, and to the S of Endymion is seen a pair of ancient (unnamed) PN-impacts that has been almost totally flooded by mare lava in the same epoch: Lacus Temporis.

    
     Beyond Endymion towards the E is seen: first the outer excavation boundary of the Nectarian epoch Humboldtianum Basin, then further E is the inner basin ring that holds the Mare Humboldtianum. The libration this evening is not favorable for the E lunar rim (-5° Long), but never the less the inner ring can be traced all around the mare lava to the far eastern side, right at the lunar horizon. The Humboldtianum rings have been named (informally, by Chuck Wood) as: outer 650 Km Ø Andes Mts. and inner 340 Km Ø Bishop Mts.

    
     I made a couple of transects: T1 across the Humboldtianum Basin and T2: across the Endymion crater complex. In general, this is a low lying area with the Mare Humboldtianum at level -4 Km, rising to -3 Km between the inner and outer ring, and then up to around -1 Km average height for the Basin ejecta carpet outside the Mts. Alpes scarp, where Endymion is located. The ancient Endymion floor is at -1.8 Km while the younger Endymion lava-covered floor is at -3 Km.

 

     The area offers quite a dramatic view in the telescope at this only 3-day young crescent moon!

    

Moon 2020-03-27 Endymium-Humboldtianum.png

*click*

    

     -- Allan

 


Edited by AllanDystrup, 01 April 2020 - 07:10 AM.

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#131 AllanDystrup

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Posted 02 April 2020 - 06:07 AM

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     I have a couple of other close-up observations of the 3-Day crescent Moon that I’d like to share here: the Crisium Basin and the Petavius crater. One disclaimer though: the high-mag views on the evening 2020 March 27 were quite soft, for several reasons: it was dusk (civil bordering on nautical), the moon was low at 19° altitude, there was a light haze towards the horizon, the seeing was below medium, and alas my polar align and focusing were both not optimal... That said, without further excuses wink.gif , here’s first:

 

CRISIUM

    

    
     The relatively young (Nectarian) Crisium Basin shows a massive rim of up-tilted crust, -- most well defined towards the W. This indicates an oblique impact in a W->E direction, which has ejected excavated material as a hummocky carpet, preferentially fanning out towards the E. 

    

     A transect of Crisium shows the W basin rim to be significantly higher (4-5 Km) than the E rim (~1 Km), with a shelf covered by shallow mare basalt just inside the rim. The shelf is delimited by an inner ring of wrinkle ridges (dorsae), inside which the thick central mare has subsided by ~500m. Several craters on the higher bench have been only partly flooded by lava (Lick, Yerkes, Eimmart C), while any lower-Imbrian craters on the central basin floor have been fully submerged by the ~3 Km thick lava cover.

    

3DY-Moon Crisium 2020-03-27.jpg

*click*

 

     -- Allan


Edited by AllanDystrup, 02 April 2020 - 06:32 AM.

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#132 AllanDystrup

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Posted 02 April 2020 - 06:15 AM

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PETAVIUS

    

    
     Petavius is an interesting large, uplifted and floor-fractured crater (FFC) with a major straight and wide crack from the central massifs to the SW rim (Rima Petavius), plus volcanic pyroclastic dark matter deposits (DMD) at the N end of the crater floor.

    

     Petavius shows a tight central ring of mountain massifs plus an unusually wide crater rim (50-100KM at the top), almost as an early stage of becoming a double-ringed impact. On the transect I made (see below) it is also evident that the crater floor is domed up with the rille probably being a tension fracture (i.e. a trench/graben).

    

3DY-Moon Petavius 2020-03-27.png

3DY-Moon 2020-03-27 Transects.png

*click*

     -- Allan


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#133 AllanDystrup

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Posted 03 April 2020 - 08:26 AM

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East Serenitatis

    

    

     The E shore of Mare Serenitatis harbors several interesting sites, including the Taurus-Littrow Valley (TLV) and the Posidonius floor fractured crater (FFC).

    

2020-03-30 Moon E Serenitatis.jpg
*click*

    

     -- Allan

    

 


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#134 AllanDystrup

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Posted 03 April 2020 - 08:39 AM

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Taurus-Littrow

    

    

     Taurus-Littrow was chosen as the final landing site for the Apollo project (A17) in an attempt to bracket the lunar time scale by sampling and dating both ancient lunar terra (uplifted Serenitatis basin floor in N. Massif?) and young eruptive volcanism (dark mantle deposits on TL Valley floor?).

    

     As it turned out, A17 succeeded in collecting 4.1 Byr crystalline material from old uplifted Serenitatis basin crust, but most of their “terra” samples from N. Massif and Sculptured Hills were complex, severely deformed and extensively melted multicomponent breccia ejecta from the Serenitatis (3.86 Byr) and later Imbrium (3.84 Byr) impacts. The DMD on the TLV floor turned out to be not so young 3.64 Byr pyroclastic material mixed up in the regolith and mostly exposed by excavation of lunar cratering. Below the regolith in the TLV was found a 1.4 Km thick and 3.7 Byr old dark titanium-rich lava layer; This dark lava is also seen along the shore of Mare Serenitatis, whereas it has been overlaid at the center of the mare by a younger and brighter lava flooding. At the foot of the S. Massif is seen a landslide wedge of bright material which was also sampled by A17; This is thought be ejecta from the Tycho impact, which was thus dated to the Copernican age of only 109 Myr.

 

2020-03-30 Moon Taurus-Littrow.jpg

*click* (Insert by NASA)

    
     So many exciting results, so much yet to be learned... As Don E. Wilhelms writes: “By the time of Apollo 17 a magnificent and sophisticated network of rocketry, flight operations, geological and geophysical support, and geologic laboratory analysis was functioning with smooth precision. Now it was time to shut it all down and turn out the lights. Let each of us reflect once again on the marvel of it. It could not be done today.” So true, so sad...

    

     -- Allan


Edited by AllanDystrup, 03 April 2020 - 08:53 AM.

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#135 AllanDystrup

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Posted 08 April 2020 - 02:11 AM

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13-Day Moon
Aristarchus, Marius, Rainer

    

    

     It’s the start of April and I’m out a couple of early evenings in a row, for high magnification observations of the ~13-Day waxing gibbous Moon towards the SE. The first evening (2020-04-05, 21:00) I have a 12.4-Day ~ 92% Moon at 36° altitude below Leo, while the following evening (2020-04-06, 21:00) the Moon is 13.7-Day ~ 97% and a bit lower at 25% altitude in Virgo. The temperature is a comfy (for the season) 7-8°C, and the first night the humidity is delightfully low (67%, dew-pt. 1°C), but there’s a wind of 5-8m/s that huffs & puffs at my small refractor; On the second night, a front zone is passing with higher humidity (89%, dew-pt. 7°C), and though the wind has abated a bit to 3-5 m/s, the seeing is considerably worse than the previous night.

    

Moon Setup 00.jpg
iPhone XS, Moon reflected in my garden pond

     

    
     There are several interesting formations along the 13-Day lunar terminator, so although the transparency and seeing these two evenings are solidly below medium, I push ahead with my observations and record my results, -- which I’ll hereby share with you. My area of interest the 1.st night are the two volcanic complexes: the Aristarchus Plateau and the Marius Hills.

    
     The Aristarchus Plateau is seen as an uplifted diamond-shaped block, covered by dark pyroclastic ash from the Cobra Vent and with several sinuous lava rilles (Rima Schröter & Toscanelli) winding out of the plateau towards the W and N. To the NE is seen the Prinz crater with more lava channels (Rimae Prinz), and S of Herodotus is the Herodotus Omega volcanic dome.

    
     Further south of the Plateau is another uplifted mare crust area with ~300 small pyroclastic ash cones, and a long sinuous rille (Rima Marius) is winding up N towards Aristarchus. This is known as the Marius Hills.

    

     The two young Copernican craters Kepler and Aristarchus have both splashed out a bright web of ejecta rays across Mare Imbrium.

    

13-Day Aristarchus-Marius.jpg
*click*

    

     -- Allan


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#136 AllanDystrup

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Posted 09 April 2020 - 01:39 AM

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13-Day Moon – continued
Rainer Gamma

    

    
     Last night I observed the volcanic Aristarchus and Marius formations, so tonight I continue further S from the Marius Hills, where I encounter the young Eratosthenian craters: Rainer and Cavalerius. Yet further SE along the lunar terminator are seen some large old pre-Nectarian (Grimaldi, Riccioli) and Nectarian (Lohrmann, Hevelius) craters.

    
     Just W of Rainer is the peculiar bright albedo swirl: Rainer Gamma, showing a central dipolar magnetized oval with a long, twisted tail up NE towards the Marius Hills plus fragments of a broken-up tail down SW along Cavalerius. It is thought that the strong local magnetic field (magcon) has deflected the solar wind, thereby reducing the space weathering and preserving the original high surface reflectance; What created the magnetic anomaly is still unknown.

    
     There are some interesting rille systems in this area too (Rima Hevelius, Grimaldi, and further south: Sirsalis), but the bad seeing tonight bounces around the field of view like a bag of Mexican Jumping Beans, thus reducing the contrast to such a degree that I can’t see the rilles...

 

13-Day Moon - Rainer.jpg
*click*

    

     -- Allan


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#137 AllanDystrup

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Posted 10 April 2020 - 01:53 AM

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13-Day Moon – continued
Schiller-Zucchius

     

     
      Besides the interesting volcanic and magnetic features at the terminator of the 13-day Moon, the Southern Highlands also offer a good view of the ancient pre-Nectarian Schiller-Zucchius Basin with surrounding, mostly Nectarian and older craters (Hainzel, Mee, Schickard, Wargentin, Phocylides, Bailly, Scheiner, Longomontanus).

     

13-Day Moon Schiller-Zucchius.jpg
*click*

          
     The unusual oblong Schiller formation is probably the result of an oblique impact of a large but broken-up projectile that made a series of elliptical, overlapping and nearly simultaneously formed craters (See John Moore’s excellent discussion >here<). I’m thinking the small shallow crater connected to Schiller at the SE end may also have been created in this cluster-impact? See LROC-Quickmap transect below:

     

13-Day Moon Schiller.jpg

*click*

     

     -- Allan


Edited by AllanDystrup, 10 April 2020 - 01:58 AM.

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#138 Dean Norris

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Posted 10 April 2020 - 11:30 AM

A perfect follow up to John Moore’s post.

An oblique impact of a broken up projectile seems like a good explanation for this unique feature.

About the transect chart, are the values for height measured from the crater rim?

The way you show the transect chart, and how that lines up with the image below is most helpful in visualizing the crater.

Thank you. Excellent thread! Looking forward to your additional posts.


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#139 AllanDystrup

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Posted 14 April 2020 - 01:51 AM

About the transect chart, are the values for height measured from the crater rim?

 

Hi Dean,

    

     The transects in LROC::QuickMap are based on data collected by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimetry  instrument. LOLA has determined the mean Lunar radius to be 1737153m ± 10m, which is then defined as "zero altitude" (ZA) for global lunar topography. Altitudes can now be modelled in 3D maps with a measurement precision to +/- 10cm standard deviation from ZA. The highest lunar elevation measured by LOLA is 10.7834 km and the lowest −9.117 km.
    

     Note that although true elevations are given in metres on the left of the transect graph, the profiles generated by QuickMap show an exaggerated elevation to highlight the terrain details. In QuickMap you can also generate interactive 3D maps of selected regions  based on the LOLA data, where you can set the Z-axis "exaggeration" from 1 to 10x; -- fun to play with and very educational!

 

Schiller.png
http://target.lroc.a...10_0_100_101_0/

    

     -- Allan


Edited by AllanDystrup, 14 April 2020 - 02:52 AM.

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#140 AllanDystrup

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Posted 02 June 2020 - 03:43 AM

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Imbrium sculpture, Ptolemaeus area.

    

    

     It’s close to solar midnight in nautical dawn here in my suburban backyard at 56N 12E, just north of Copenhagen. I’m out in the first summer night this year (2020-06-01, 01:30 local DST, UT+2) to study the 9.7 day ~71% illuminated waxing moon, which is now sinking from 13° altitude in Virgo down towards the W horizon; The temperature is a comfy 8°C, the humidity 89% and the dew point is close by at 7°C. The transparency is an OK 4-5/7, but the seeing is not good at all, only ~3/10 with the moon edge undulating already at 50x mag. and a close-up view waving wildly at 200x, with only rare sub-second glimpses of sharp surface details.

  

     I snap an overview image using my smartphone at 1/150s & ISO24 on my 4” refractor with a 13mm Ethos (50x @ 2° FOV), -- which however is still rather washed out by the seeing.

         

2020-06-01 9.7DY Moon overview.jpg

    

    I decide to try a close-up view of the W shore of the Great Peninsula, including the Ptolemaeus-Alphonsus-Arzachel and Albateginus craters. I change to my small CM3 machine-cam for lucky imaging with 1/30s exposures for 15s (200x @, 7.5”) The contrast is spot on, but the resolution is..., well: awful! I can see no fine surface details, but in an interesting way, this seems to enhance the overall surface-sculpture of furrows through crater rims and troughs across the highlands, all created by ejecta thrown out radially by the Imbrium basin impact. I can spot the three largest dark fire-fountain mare patches in Alphonsus, but not the volcanic craterlets and rilles associated with these. Must try again another time smile.gif 

    

2020-06-01 9.7DY Moon close-up.jpg

    

     -- Allan


Edited by AllanDystrup, 02 June 2020 - 05:43 AM.

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#141 John_Moore

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Posted 02 June 2020 - 05:34 AM

So glad to see you back, Allan, with such detailed information about our Moon (over 11,000 views can't be bad, but encouraging). More, more...please.

 

John


Edited by John_Moore, 02 June 2020 - 06:05 AM.


#142 AllanDystrup

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Posted 02 June 2020 - 06:20 AM

     Thank you, John! laugh.gif So much to explore on our Moon, though the observing conditions are not always cooperating. I’ve enjoyed  studying Venus in the daytime lately, as the planet has moved in towards inferion conjunction; Soon out on the other side of the sun as our morning star.

     

     Meanwhile, waiting for a good lunation to study the W edge of the Moon with the Orientale bassin rim features. And enjoying the many good posts here on the nearside as well as the far side lunar morphology. waytogo.gif

 

     — Allan


Edited by AllanDystrup, 02 June 2020 - 06:21 AM.

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#143 ETXer

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Posted 02 June 2020 - 06:43 AM

Excellent series, Allan. I myself am getting more involved with lunar observation and discovering its observational opportunities that will last a lifetime.

 

Very detailed and well done, thanks!

 

Cheers, Allan


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#144 Sky King

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Posted 03 June 2020 - 02:18 PM

Great thread! Excellent information!

6 2 20b

I am just starting out and having taken quite a few photos of the moon, I don't really know what area I'm looking at. I got a "New Atlas of the Moon" by Legault and Brunier but still get lost. I took this image with a ASI174mm camera and think it's the Mare Vaporum area with Manilius? I also would like to measure the size of the craters with a Meade Astrometric Reticle 12mm eyepiece as soon as I figure it out. Regards, Al


Edited by Sky King, 03 June 2020 - 02:30 PM.

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#145 AllanDystrup

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Posted 04 June 2020 - 05:48 AM

 I don't really know what area I'm looking at...

    

Hi Al,
    
     Here's your observation, oriented with N up & E right, and with a boost in contrast. We're looking at the eastern shore of Mare Nubium with the triplet of large craters Ptolemaeus-Alphonsus-Arzachel towards the east, and the "diamond" of large craters in the southern highlands: Tycho-Longomontanus-Maginus-Clavius.

    

Mare Nubium E.png
 

     A good modern comprehensive lunar atlas is the "21 Century ATLAS of the MOON", by Charles A. Wood and Maurice J.S. Collins.

    

     -- Allan

 


Edited by AllanDystrup, 04 June 2020 - 05:53 AM.

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#146 Sky King

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Posted 04 June 2020 - 11:14 AM

  Here's your observation, oriented with N up & E right, and with a boost in contrast.  

Thank you! Very helpful! Now I know how to orient my pictures and will try my variable polarizing filter for more contrast. Also will get a copy of 21 Century ATLAS of the MOON. Thanks for taking the time to put me on the right track. The moon is awesome.  Al


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#147 AllanDystrup

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Posted 18 June 2020 - 07:05 AM

.

The Daylight Moon, May 14 2020 at 09:30 AM.

    

    

     It had been several weeks without an opportunity to study the Moon, so when I came out in mid-May on a bright sunny day to observe the solar activity, I also noticed the 39% waning moon up at ~28° altitude towards the SSW. Having caught the active region AR2765 in the process of rotating around the western limb, I now pointed my 4” refractor at the moon to see if it was possible to catch any details here on a bright early summer forenoon.
    
     The transparency was a good medium ~4/7 on the W part of the sky, with a sheet of altocumulus slowly closing in from the E, and the seeing was also medium ~5/10 with noticeable (but not too severe) atmospheric turbulence. The contrast on the moon was of course quite washed out due to the daylight sky, but just for fun (and because I was lunar starved) I decided I would place myself in an imaginary Apollo era LEM orbiting the moon, coming in from the NE and circling down SW towards the Mare Humorum region. (This is easy to do, as my 2” Amici diagonal in the Zeiss quick change system is fully rotatable, so like with the LEM thrusters, I can orientate my FOV into any position I desire):

 

2020-06-14 Moon 49x.jpg
*click*

     -- Allan

 

 

 

 


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#148 AllanDystrup

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Posted 18 June 2020 - 07:09 AM

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The Daylight Moon, May 14 2020 at 09:30 AM
[0]: Pitatus - Bullialdus

    

    

     Right now, I’m flying over the Bullialdus-Pitatus area [0] heading due SE towards the lunar limb. It is refreshing to look at the lunar surface formations from this unorthodox direction; Normally I prefer a ”standard” N-up, E-right orientation for easy comparison with my lunar maps, but it is interesting from time to time to change your angle of view (as long as you know where you're going … grin.gif).

    

 

2020-06-14 Moon 300x.jpg
*click*

    

     The area below me is dominated by the ancient pre-Nectarian Nubium impact basin, with its SW rim marked by a broken range of hills extending from Pitatus, past the crater pair Mercator-Campanus, then E of Hippalus-Agatharchides and bending further E past Lubiniezky. Several Nectarian craters on the floor of the Nubium basin were partly flooded in the upper Imbrium lava eruptions, and now appear as ghost craters in Mare Nubium (Kies, Wolf, Gould etc.). Bullialdus of course is a much later (Eratosthenian) impact in the mare lavas, still showing wellformed terraces and central peaks.

 

     -- Allan


Edited by AllanDystrup, 19 June 2020 - 03:39 AM.

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#149 AllanDystrup

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Posted 19 June 2020 - 02:26 AM

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The Daylight Moon, May 14 2020 at 09:30 AM
[1]: Longomontanus - Schiller

    

    

     Drifting further SW in my imaginary LEM, I next look out the left window onto an area that is very familiar to me, with the large Nectarian craters Clavius and Longomontanus plus the elongated Schiller crater next to the ancient pre-Nectarian Schiller-Zucchius Basin, which shows several clusters of small craters in the SW part.

    

     Flying past the pre-Nectarian crater Wilhelm, I notice the Heinsius crater cluster, which seems to be located just at the edge of an oblong depression in the lunar surface; In this illumination the depression looks like it could be the remains of a degraded ancient pre-Nectarian impact.., -- but it is probably just a random alignment of ejecta ridges from the Imbrium basin excavation thinking1.gif ?

     

2020-06-14 1 Longomontanus-Schiller.jpg
*click*

 

    
     Using QuickMap I make a 3D-model with a transect of the Heinsius depression, -- but my analysis of the probable origin is inconclusive; See for yourself:

    

2020-06-14 1 Longomontanus-Schiller Model.jpg
*click*

     -- Allan


Edited by AllanDystrup, 19 June 2020 - 03:41 AM.

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#150 Dean Norris

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Posted 19 June 2020 - 10:20 PM

Inspiring Moon observers, Allan great posts. 

 

The Heinsius depression is a new feature for me. Thank you for bringing it to my attention. I wonder if there is ice at the bottom of Heinsius A? Probably not. But lately I've been enjoying letting my imagination run wild and believe it can lead to new insights I would not have made otherwise.  

 

 Dean


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