November Celestial Calendar by Dave Mitsky
All times are UT (subtract five hours after DST ends and, when appropriate, one calendar day)
11/1 Mercury is at the descending node at 6:00
11/2 Saturn is 4 degrees south of the Moon at 19:00; the equation of time is at a maximum (16.48 minutes) for 2016
11/3 Venus is 7 degrees south of the Moon at 4:00; asteroid Eurynome (magnitude +9.6) is at opposition at 18:00
11/5 The peak of the Southern Taurid meteor shower (5 to 10 per hour) occurs at 5:00; Mars is at heliocentric conjunction with Neptune at 19:00
11/6 Daylight Saving Time (DST) ends today; Jupiter is 2 degrees north of the Moon at 16:00
11/7 The Lunar X (Purbach or Werner Cross), an X-shaped illumination effect involving various rims and ridges between the craters La Caille, Blanchinus, and Purbach, is predicted to occur at 2:17; First Quarter Moon occurs at 19:51
11/9 Neptune is 1.0 degree south of the Moon, with an occultation occurring in western Asia, eastern Europe, and northernmost Africa, at 15:00
11/11 Mercury is at aphelion (0.47 astronomical units) at 15:00
11/12 Uranus is 3 degrees south of the Moon at 11:00; the peak of the Northern Taurid meteor shower (5 to 10 per hour) occurs at 23:00
11/14 The Moon is at perigee, the closest one in 30 years, subtending 33'31" from a distance of 356,509 kilometers (221,524 miles), at 11:00; Full Moon, known as the Beaver or Frost Moon, occurs at 13:52; Venus is at its greatest southern declination (-25.6 degrees) at 14:00
11/15 The Moon is 9.0 degrees south of the bright open cluster M45 (the Pleaides) in Taurus at 2:00; the Moon is 0.4 degree north of the first-magnitude star Aldebaran (Alpha Tauri), with an occultation occurring in Japan, central Asia, and the Middle East, at 17:00
11/17 The Moon is 5.5 degrees south of the bright open cluster M35 in Gemini at 5:00; the peak of the Leonid meteor shower (15 to 20 per hour) occurs at 11:00
11/19 Mercury is 2.8 degrees north of the first-magnitude star Antares (Alpha Scorpii) at 6:00; the Moon is 3.9 degrees south of the bright open cluster M44 in Cancer at 17:00
11/20 Neptune is stationary in right ascension at 10:00
11/21 Last Quarter Moon occurs at 8:33
11/22 The Moon is at the ascending node at 2:49; Venus is at its greatest heliocentric latitude south (-3.4 degrees) at 11:00; the Sun enters the constellation of Scorpius at 23:00
11/23 The Curtiss Cross, an X-shaped illumination effect located between the craters Parry and Gambart, is predicted to occur at 3:57; Mercury is 3.4 degrees south of Saturn at 16:00
11/25 Jupiter is 1.9 degrees south of the Moon at 2:00
11/27 Asteroid 60 Echo (magnitude +10.1) is at opposition at 10:00; the Moon is at apogee, subtending 29'23" from a distance of 406,554 kilometers (252,621 miles) at 20:08
11/28 The Martian northern hemisphere winter solstice occurs at 8:00
11/29 New Moon (lunation 1162) occurs at 12:18; the Sun enters the constellation of Ophiuchus at 19:00; asteroid 3 Juno is in conjunction with the Sun at 20:00
11/30 Saturn is 3.6 degrees south of the Moon at 8:00
Edmund Halley, William Herschel, Harlow Shapley, and Edwin Hubble were born this month.
The first photograph of a meteor was taken on November 26, 1885. The minor planet/comet 2060 Chiron or 95P/Chiron was discovered by Charles Kowal on November 1, 1977.
The peaks of the minor Southern and Northern Taurid meteor showers take place on November 5th and November 12th respectively. These streams form part of the complex associated with Comet 2P/Encke. Moonlight compromises the peak of the Northern Taurids. The Leonid meteor shower occurs on the morning of November 17th. A waning gibbous Moon interferes with viewing this shower. Leonid meteors are debris from the periodic comet 55P/Tempel-Tuttle. Due to their high speed (71 kilometers or 44 miles per second), the Leonids produce a greater percentage of fireballs than most meteor showers.
Information on Iridium flares and passes of the ISS, the Tiangong-1, the X-37B, the HST, and other satellites can be found at http://www.heavens-above.com/
The Moon is 1.3 days old, is 1.5% illuminated, subtends 29.30 arc minutes, and resides in Libra on November 1st at 0:00 UT. The longest synodic or lunar month of 2016 (29 days, 18 hours, and 40 minutes) takes place this month. The largest Full Moon of the year, a so-called Supermoon that will be 7% larger and 16% brighter than average, occurs on November 14th. Large tides will take place on November 14th through November 17th. The Moon reaches its greatest northern declination on November 17th (+18.7 degrees) and its greatest southern declination on November 5th (-18.6 degrees). Longitudinal libration is at a maximum of +8.1 degrees on November 20th and a minimum of -7.5 degrees on November 9th. Latitudinal libration is at a maximum of +6.5 degrees on November 16th and a minimum of -6.6 degrees on November 2nd and -6.5 degrees on November 30th. The waxing gibbous Moon occults Neptune from parts of Asia, Europe, and Africa on November 9th. The Full Moon occults Aldebaran (magnitude +0.9) from parts of Asia and the Middle East on November 15th. Consult http://www.lunar-occ...ota/iotandx.htm for information on lunar occultations taking place this month. Visit http://saberdoesthes...does-the-stars/ for tips on spotting extreme crescent Moons and http://www.curtrenz.com/moon06.html for Full Moon data. Times and dates for the lunar light rays predicted to occur this month are available at http://www.lunar-occ...o/rays/rays.htm
The Sun is located in Libra on November 1 at 0:00 UT. It moves into Scorpius on November 22nd and Ophiuchus on November 29th.
Brightness, apparent size, illumination, distance from the Earth in astronomical units, and location data for the planets and Pluto on November 1: Mercury (-1.3, 4.7", 100% illuminated, 1.44 a.u., Libra), Venus (magnitude -4.0, 14.0", 78% illuminated, 1.19 a.u., Ophiuchus), Mars (magnitude +0.4, 7.5", 86% illuminated, 1.25 a.u., Sagittarius), Jupiter (magnitude -1.7, 31.2", 100% illuminated, 6.31 a.u., Virgo), Saturn (magnitude +0.5, 15.3", 100% illuminated, 10.84 a.u., Ophiuchus), Uranus (magnitude +5.7, 3.7", 100% illuminated, 19.11 a.u. on November 16th, Pisces), Neptune (magnitude +7.9, 2.3", 100% illuminated, 29.68 a.u. on November 16th, Aquarius), and Pluto (magnitude +14.3, 0.1", 100% illuminated, 33.82 a.u. on November 16th, Sagittarius).
During the evening, Mercury, Venus, and Saturn are in the southwest, Mars is in the south, Uranus is in the east, and Neptune is in the southeast. Uranus lies in the southwest and Neptune in the west at midnight. Jupiter is located in the southeast in the morning sky.
At midmonth, Mercury is visible during evening twilight, Venus sets at 7:00 p.m. local time, Mars sets at 10:00 p.m. local time, Jupiter rises at 3:00 a.m. local time, and Saturn sets at 6:00 p.m. for observers at latitude 40 degrees north.
Mercury is best seen during the second half of November. The smallest planet is at aphelion on November 11th. Mercury lies 2.8 degrees north of Antares on November 19th.
Venus (magnitude -4.0) and Saturn (magnitude +0.5) are approximately five degrees apart shortly after sunset on November 1st. The brilliant planet lies seven degrees south of the three-day-old Moon on November 3rd. Venus has close encounters with three Messier objects this month. It passes 1.2 degrees south of the bright emission nebula and open cluster M8 (the Lagoon Nebula) on November 12th, 0.7 degree south of the bright globular cluster M28 on November 16th, and 1.6 degrees south of the bright globular cluster M22 on November 18th. Venus is at greatest heliocentric latitude south on November 22nd. It lies about one degree from the binary star 52 Sagittarii (magnitude +4.6) at the end of the month.
As November begins, Mars (magnitude +0.4) is positioned three degrees northeast of 52 Sagittarii. The Red Planet moves from Sagittarius to Capricornus on November 8th. The Martian northern hemisphere winter starts on November 28th. By month’s end, Mars subtends a mere 6.5 arc seconds.
Jupiter rises 2.5 hours before the Sun at the start of the month and shortly after 2:30 a.m. local time on November 30th. The largest planet is situated approximately 30 degrees above the horizon one hour before sunrise by the end of November. Its apparent diameter increases from 31.2 to 32.8 arc seconds this month. Jupiter lies 1.9 degrees south of the twenty-five-day-old Moon on November 25th. Shadow transits take place on the mornings of November 8th (Ganymede), November 21st (Io), and November 22nd (Europa). On the morning of November 24th, Callisto, Jupiter’s second largest satellite, passes due north of the planet, the first time in over three years that Callisto has not transited Jupiter. Click on http://www.skyandtel...watching-tools/ to determine transit times of the central meridian by the Great Red Spot. Data on Galilean satellite events is available at http://www.skyandtel...watching-tools/
Saturn sinks into evening twilight as November progresses. It lies four degrees south of the three-day-old Moon on November 2nd. The Ringed Planet (magnitude +0.5) passes 3.4 degrees north of Mercury (magnitude -0.5) on November 23rd. Saturn is 3.6 degrees south of the one-day-old Moon on November 30th. As the month ends, Saturn sets about 30 minutes after the Sun.
Uranus continues to retrograde through Pisces this month. It lies three degrees south of the thirteen-day-old Moon on November 12th. Uranus can be found 1.7 degrees east of the fifth-magnitude star Zeta Piscium on November 1st and 0.9 degree east of that star on November 30th.
Neptune lies about 2.5 degrees southwest of the fourth-magnitude star Lambda Aquarii this month. It lies one degree south of the ten-day-old Moon on November 9th. The distant planet resumes prograde or direct motion on November 20th.
Finder charts for Uranus and Neptune appear on page 50 of the October issue of Sky & Telescope. Online finder charts for the two planets can be found at http://www.nakedeyep....com/uranus.htm and http://www.nakedeyep...com/neptune.htm and also at http://www.skyandtel...p16_Finders.pdf
Pluto lies too close to the horizon to be observed this month.
For more on the planets and how to locate them, see http://www.nakedeyeplanets.com/
Asteroid/dwarf planet 1 Ceres travels northwestward through northern Cetus this month. The eighth-magnitude object passes about two degrees north of the fifth-magnitude star SAO 129465 on November 12th and November 13th. For information on this year’s bright asteroids and upcoming asteroid occultation events respectively, consult http://www.curtrenz.com/asteroids.html and http://asteroidoccultation.com/
A rather dim Oort Cloud comet C/2015 V2 (Johnson) glides southeastward through Canes Venatici during November mornings. For additional information on comets visible this month, browse http://cometchasing.skyhound.com/ and http://www.aerith.ne...t/future-n.html
Two stars with exoplanetary systems, Upsilon Andromedae (magnitude +4.1) and 51 Andromedae (magnitude +5.5), can be seen this month without optical aid.
The famous eclipsing variable star Algol (Beta Persei) is at a minimum, decreasing in brightness from magnitude +2.1 to magnitude +3.4, on November 3rd, 6th, 9th, 11th, 14th, 17th, 20th, 23rd, 26th, and 29th. Algol is at minimum brightness for about two hours early in the night for observers in North America on November 8th and November 28th. Consult http://www.skyandtel...watching-tools/ and page 51 of the November issue of Sky & Telescope for the eclipse times. For more on Algol, see http://stars.astro.i.../sow/Algol.html and http://www.solstatio...ars2/algol3.htm
Seventy binary and multiple stars for November: Otto Struve 514, Alpha Andromedae (Alpheratz), Struve 3, h1947, Struve 19, Struve 24, 26 Andromedae, Struve 40, Pi Andromedae, Delta Andromedae, Struve 47, Eta Andromedae, Struve 79, Beta Andromedae (Mirach), Struve 108, Struve 179, South 404 (Andromeda); 1 Arietis, Struve 178, Gamma Arietis, Lambda Arietis (Mesarthim) (Aries); Struve 3053, Struve 3057, Struve 16, Struve 30, Otto Struve 16, Alpha Cassiopeiae (Schedar), Struve 59, Eta Cassiopeiae, Burnham 1, Struve 70, Otto Struve 23, h1088, Struve 163, Struve 170, Struve 182 (Cassiopeia); 34 Piscium, Struve 8, 35 Piscium, Struve 15, 38 Piscium, 42 Piscium, 49 Piscium, 51 Piscium, 55 Piscium, 65 Piscium, Psi Piscium, Otto Struve 22, Struve 98, Otto Struve 26, Phi Piscium, Zeta Piscium, h636, Otto Struve 30, Struve 122, Struve 132, Otto Struve 31, 100 Piscium, Struve 145, 107 Piscium, h644 (Pisces); h5440, Kappa-1 Sculptoris, h1949, h3442, h3379, Tau Sculptoris, Epsilon Sculptoris (Sculptor); Struve 143, Struve 183 (Triangulum)
Notable carbon star for November: Z Piscium
Seventy deep-sky objects for November: M31, M32, M110, NGC 252, NGC 404, NGC 752 (Andromeda); NGC 680, NGC 691, NGC 697, NGC 772 (Aries); Cr 463, IC 1747, K14, M103, NGC 129, NGC 133, NGC 146, NGC 185, NGC 225, NGC 281, NGC 278, NGC 381, NGC 436, NGC 457, NGC 559, NGC 637, NGC 654, NGC 659, NGC 663, Tr 1 (Cassiopeia); NGC 40, NGC 188 (Cepheus); NGC 151, NGC 175, NGC 178, NGC 210, NGC 227, NGC 245, NGC 246, NGC 247, NGC 274, NGC 337, NGC 578, NGC 584, NGC 596, NGC 615, NGC 636, NGC 681, NGC 720, NGC 779 (Cetus); NGC 7814 (Pegasus); M76, St 4 (Perseus); M74, NGC 128, NGC 194, NGC 488, NGC 524 (Pisces); NGC 24, NGC 55, NGC 134, NGC 150, NGC 253, NGC 254, NGC 288, NGC 289, NGC 439, NGC 613 (Sculptor); M33, NGC 672 (Triangulum)
Top ten binocular deep-sky objects for November: M31, M33, M103, NGC 225, NGC 288, NGC 253, NGC 457, NGC 654, NGC 663, NGC 752
Top ten deep-sky objects for November: M31, M32, M33, M76, M103, M110, NGC 40, NGC 253, NGC 457, NGC 752
Challenge deep-sky object for November: IC 59 (Cassiopeia)
The objects listed above are located between 0:00 and 2:00 hours of right ascension.