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Great Quasars: 12 Hyperluminous Deep AGNs for big scopes

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#1 quazy4quasars

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Posted 24 August 2017 - 04:58 PM

These place among the brightest known sources in the universe.  Most will require a 12" -16" scope.
-gleaned from Veron-Cetty, Millquas(E. flesch) SDSS-III  Hamburg QSO  and other catalogs.

           APM08279+5255       z=3.91  V =~16.5        12.0 Gly   -  Difficult field, rather faint, redish, resolves in 25"  Lensed
           B2 1422+231             z=3.62  V = 15.8         11.8 Gly   -  Very easy field, well resolved as quasi-pointlike,  Lensed.
           SBS1425+606            z+3.16  V  = 15.8         11.4 Gly   -   Easy field,  Extreme luminosity. Can be seen most of year NH.
           HS1946+769              z=3.02   V =~15.9       11.1 Gly   -    Difficult field, Extremely luminous.   Circumpolar at 77.1 N
           HS1603+3820            z=2.51   V (est)=15.5  10.6 Gly    -   Difficult field, Possibly in outburst. visible in 12-14"
           PG1247+267             z=2.04   V = 15.5          10.1 Gly   -   Very easy field,  1deg. S of 30 comae.  visible in 12-14"
           QSO B1225-1116      z=1.98    V (est) =15.6  10.0 Gly   -  Difficult field, equatorial.  (southern dec robs it of .3-.5  mag from 40 N.)
           PG1634+706             z=1.337  V = 14.7          8.9 Gly    -  Easy field,  Possible in 8" on up - can be seen most of the year.
           QSO B1718+481       z=1.08    V = 14.6          7.6 Gly    -  Easy field.  Good for 8"   Nearest of the Great Quasars,   N of M92
           SDSS1521+5202       z=2.21    V = 15.7          10.4 Gly  -  Easy field.  X-ray weak brightest from SDSS dr7Q 
           HS1549+1919            z=2.84    V = 15.8           11.0 Gly -  Easy field   Extremely luminous, non lensed; dense protocluster core

*NEW* 01 47 09 +46 30 37   z=2.38    V = 14.9!!!       10.5 Gly  -  BRIGHT quadruple lens, recent discovery:  "Andromeda's Parachute"

 

 Check SIMBAD, NED or HEASARC for coordinates
WIKISKY (Skymap.org) is excellent for generating finding charts

Happy Hunting.


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#2 quazy4quasars

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Posted 26 August 2019 - 12:07 PM

  There are a few more QSOs that could be added to this list,  which was, with one exception, restricted to those QSOs with published  V brighter than 16.0,  and with brightness at or very near the highest observed for a given or greater z,  including lensed sources-  in short they would be just about the easiest to detect for their red-shift distance or beyond.

 

  There are z~3 QSOs in the list that appear slightly brighter than their published V mags would indicate, owing to a flux peak blueward of the V passband, but within a couple hundred nm of the scotopic sensitivity peak, or right on top of it.  Also, even hyperlumoinous QSOs are variable within a fraction of a magnitude or so, and their light-curves are not well constrained, so you may be granted a slight flux bonus if you happen to catch them near peak.  Here are some additional sources that I think merit a mention:

 

S5 0014+813      z~3.36     V~16.5       SMBH Possibly the largest known, and a Blazar..  Try to catch it in outburst!

HS 0747+471     z~3.20      V~16.4*     scotopic mag about 15.8-16.0 due to VERY strong, phased lya/NV emission feature (the peak of the "big blue bump"), similar to that of SBS 1425+606

CSO 38              z~2.62     V~16.0       

HS 1103+6416   z~2.23       V~15.8

HS 1700+6416   z~2.72       V~16.1

HS 1626+6433   z~2.30       V~15.8

 

Happy Hunting.


Edited by quazy4quasars, 26 August 2019 - 06:22 PM.

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#3 Arcticpaddler

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Posted 26 August 2019 - 04:36 PM

I think there are 6-8 quasars that are visible with my humble, 8-inch scope.  I've viewed one so far.  I can see objects down to mag 14.5, but 15 to 16 is a tall order... LOL.



#4 quazy4quasars

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Posted 06 September 2019 - 11:38 AM

  At long last, after a midnight moon-set, I observed S5 0014+813 (V~16.5, z~3.36)  in Cepheus:  It is the most distant non-lensed QSO I have ever seen; one of only a couple-few z>3 QSOs bright enough to be seen even in 16" and larger amateur instruments.  The view in my 25" was at 450x, using a 9mm nagler and 2x Stellarvue Barlowe lens.

     

  Although hampered by a difficult field as well as by this source being too far North for a near-zenithal view, It was -rather surprisingly- not difficult in my 25" in decent-good seeing; in spite of only moderate transparency and less-than-dark-site limiting magnitude. A nearby 17.0 mag star was intermittently direct-visible and another at V~17.7 was not definite at any time, only an occasional hint of "something there" in averted vision.  The QSO itself has a decent lyman alpha/NV peak around 525-535 nm which no doubt helps with scotopic visibility, nicely compensating for moderate lyman-forest absorbtion blueward of 520 nm.

 

  This QSO's light has been en route to Earth for fully 12 Billion years, its current distance is estimated at well over 22 Billion Light years.  We see it shining from within a much smaller and younger universe; the still-early morning of time; powered by a 40 Billion Solar mass SMBH, perhaps the largest in the early universe, with a Schwarzchild radius about 400 times the diameter of our Solar System.  These things are phenomenal in all ways; they really take one out of oneself.  At some point,  billions of years ago, The SMBH engine ran short of fuel and the light faded, but we still see it shining from this oh-so-remote distance, in spite of well over Six magnitudes of cosmological surface-brightness dimming (NED) due to the Hubble expansion of space-time.

 

  For any source, lensed or not- to be optically visible at such a distance, it must -have been- hyper-prodigiously luminous; and so extremely hot that the far UV emission may be seen by our eyes -after being stretched to over four times its original wavelength, of course.  The actual optical emission of the QSO in the rest frame, has now also been stretched to more than fourfold to become ~2 micron infrared radiation. So, these deep, hyperluminous QSOs - The Great Quasars- are really illusory -even when they are NOT lensed: Billions of years gone now, and a present marvel in the eyepiece, looking like just another very faint star..

 

  Good day to you.


Edited by quazy4quasars, 06 September 2019 - 09:53 PM.

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#5 quazy4quasars

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Posted 11 August 2020 - 12:44 PM

  There are a few more QSOs that could be added to this list,  which was, with one exception, restricted to those QSOs with published  V brighter than 16.0,  and with brightness at or very near the highest observed for a given or greater z,  including lensed sources-  in short they would be just about the easiest to detect for their red-shift distance or beyond.  

 

  There are z~3 QSOs in the list that appear slightly brighter than their published V mags would indicate, owing to a flux peak blueward of the V passband, but within a couple hundred nm of the scotopic sensitivity peak, or right on top of it.  Also, even hyperlumoinous QSOs are variable within a fraction of a magnitude or so, and their light-curves are not well constrained, so you may be granted a slight flux bonus if you happen to catch them near peak.  Here are some additional sources that I think merit a mention:

 

S5 0014+813      z~3.36     V~16.5       SMBH Possibly the largest known, and a Blazar..  Try to catch it in outburst!

HS 0747+471     z~3.20      V~16.4*     scotopic mag about 15.8-16.0 due to VERY strong, phased lya/NV emission feature (the peak of the "big blue bump"), similar to that of SBS 1425+606

CSO 38              z~2.62     V~16.0       

HS 1103+6416   z~2.23       V~15.8

HS 1700+6416   z~2.72       V~16.1

HS 1626+6433   z~2.30       V~15.8

 

Happy Hunting.

 

 HI all; I though I'd add a newly discovered HLQSO to this list. This one is near record in several categories, including an estmated SMBH mass of ~27,000,0000,000 Suns and a bolometric (total) estimated luminosity of just over 10^15 Solar luminosity.  The source name is 2MASS  J13260399+7023462,   V~16.1,  z~2.89.  

 

 This source was identified using modern photometric template methods for deep QSO surveys;  Multiple passbands across the visible and infrared (Pan-STARRS and WISE)  are used (QSOS by their relative broad-band intensities are seen to show a color space "track" that differs -albeit only slightly- from most main sequence stars) and thus a candidate list is produced;  the likeliest candidates (among millions) are then chosen for spectroscopic follow up, which remains the only way to firmly distinguish a "bright" QSO from the myriads of faint stars, and spectra is also needed to determine a QSO's red-shift.

 

 At this stage of the game,  the search for new QSOs and especially lensed QSOs  is concentrated beyond z>5, (which no amateur can ever hope to see -due to Lyman-forest absorbtion of the extreme rest-frame UV emission, sought by science for its value in determining the structure of the early universe).  So, new, optically bright QSO discoveries in the z=2-4 range have been few.

 

 Among HLQSOs  the majority were identified by Schmidt-prism surveys, and there are perhaps only a dozen or even less that remain yet to be identified.  We don't yet know whether many (or all) of the sum of remaining HLQSOs may be hidden behind brighter foreground stars or Galactic dust in the disk of our own Galaxy;  but it remains likely that at least a few are probably still just hiding in plain sight, Beyond the the halo or closer to the plain of the Milky Way, certainly not at all easy to spot among overwhelming numbers of faint, twinkling stars, yet quite visible and subject to possible confirmation.    

 

 For myself, it's good to know that even though a newly discovered ancient AGN as bright as One Thousand Quadrillion Suns may not even make the evening news anymore; -yet there are still teams of individuals working with an awesome array of tools and talent, cooperating to complete mankind's ongoing census of these extraordinary denizens of the Early Universe;  Its neat that new ones are still to be found, and its great to have a really big dob, so I can go take a look.

 

 The Discovery paper is fresh (June 2020); calculus-free, well worth a brief read:  

 

 https://arxiv.org/pdf/2006.11915.pdf

 

Stay safe and Be well, Aight?  


Edited by quazy4quasars, 11 August 2020 - 01:58 PM.

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#6 GUS.K

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Posted 12 August 2020 - 07:34 PM

Any lists available with southern declinations seems you northerners have more than your fair share of QSO's. 



#7 quazy4quasars

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Posted 13 August 2020 - 01:24 AM

Hi, Gus! 

 

You Aussies can bag   HE 0515-4414   (R.A. 05 17 07.6   Dec  -44 10 56)  Mag 14.9 (O)   V about 15.0  and z = 1.713   -and I cant!!!

 

But I am a humane man.  It's true that the N galactic cap has been searched more thoroughly -yet the South has yielded some gems for you as well...

 

These are a few lists that include many if not all currently known bright Southern QSOs.

 

http://www.klima-luf.../KHQ/anhang.txt

 

https://heasarc.gsfc.../milliquas.html

 

https://heasarc.gsfc...g/veroncat.html

 

https://sites.google...de/quasars-list

 

-Q4Q


Edited by quazy4quasars, 13 August 2020 - 01:35 AM.

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#8 GUS.K

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Posted 15 August 2020 - 12:44 AM

Hi Q4Q. I observed HE 0515 -4414 in Pictor earlier this year with my 18 inch scope. I have also seen Q1224 -1116 in Virgo as well as attempting B1104-181 in Crater( I tried a couple of times but just couldn't get the seeing to up the magnification. I thought I might have glimpsed something in its location but can't put it down as a definite.I have a list of a couple more to tackle in the next few months. And thanks for the information as well.  


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#9 quazy4quasars

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Posted 10 February 2021 - 02:02 PM

One more add,  seeing as this is the season for it:  

 

"The Diamond"  Recently discovered  Quad Lens QSO:   11 34 40.535 -21 03 22.40   V = ~15.9  -integrated from g, r (A+B+C+D)   -   z~2.77    -   Best Southern Hemisphere quad so far. From 40 N it will appear mag >16.2 at culmination.

 

-Reminder: finding fields for all these QSOs can be  generated at  CDSPortal

 

  http://cdsportal.u-strasbg.fr

 

and at Wikisky (Skymap.org)  and other sites.

 

Happy Quazing!


Edited by quazy4quasars, 10 February 2021 - 02:48 PM.

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#10 quazy4quasars

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Posted 07 April 2021 - 07:24 PM

  So the Jury is in and B1224-1116 is removed from the list -as the 18.1 mag QSO itself is not visible to amateur scopes. The source is erroneously assigned to a star of mag 15.37 that sits practically on top of the QSO.  I always wondered why there was so little scholarly research on this source,  and even though CDS still gives the 15 mag figure, the QSO is shown to be the dim source in contact with the star, and that proximity was the source of the error that made its way into Veron-Veron-Cetty and other catalogs.  Thanks to Eric Flesch (author of MillQuas) for providing updated and correct information.

 

  I feel a need to correct thie info I provided,  and I offer in its place the Southern Hemisphere QSO:  HE 0515-4414   (R.A. 05 17 07.6   Dec  -44 10 56)  Mag 14.9 (O)   -V about 15.0  at z = 1.713, for those far enough south to see it.

 

 That's all for now

-Q4Q



#11 GUS.K

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Posted 08 April 2021 - 02:41 AM

That's disappointing, I spotted this one a while ago, makes you think what else is unreliable information regarding quasars. At least in this case it has been clarified, thanks for sharing. 



#12 quazy4quasars

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Posted 08 April 2021 - 11:07 AM

That's disappointing, I spotted this one a while ago, makes you think what else is unreliable information regarding quasars. At least in this case it has been clarified, thanks for sharing. 

Well, my friend, it's the internet... In fact, errors are absolutely rife,  Nothing should be regarded as reliable, and when I tell you that the other QSOs in this thread may be confidently regarded as verified, you should probably take that with a large grain of salt.  lol.gif

 

Please take great consolation in that it was your recent comment on Q1224-1116 (mislabelled by me as 1225-1116 -lol) that reminded me of my belated effort to get to the bottom of this quandry, years back.  Sometimes, it's not that the truth isn't out there, but that confirmation of accepted data being in error is not to be found without great difficulty, if at all..

 

 It may be a long time indeed before the subtle inference that something is amiss- can be reduced to a certainty, if it happens at all, we should thank our lucky stars.  So, thank you Gus, We've done what we could to stem this Noachian flood of misinformation. waytogo.gif

 

 Good day to you

 

Q4Q 


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#13 GUS.K

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Posted 08 April 2021 - 03:22 PM

We'll, that's science at work, better to know the truth, than continue a misleading falsehood. I did track down the quasar, I was at it's location, just didn't see it. For me part of the fun is tracking these objects down, it hones the skill for the next one. I appreciate the effort you go to, finding the information on these objects and sharing it and your observations here.


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