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Goto Kogaku Apollon, Type 3, 47mm, f/17, Pre-WWII (1938-1942)

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#1 Stew44

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Posted 02 August 2018 - 12:07 PM

I wanted to share with you my newest Goto telescope.  Thanks to fellow CN'r illwhttail, who had seen some of the Goto posts here on CN, we were able save this very important example of one of the earliest surviving Goto Optical Research Corp telescopes.  A pretty good chain exists back to the original owner and a plausible story of acquisition. 

 

Apollon.jpg

P8020315.JPG

 

There is quite a bit about this scope that is rather unique.  I'll be cleaning some things up and doing some comparisons with later Goto telescopes and their accys; but key here is it's kind of a missing link as to what we might expect an offering from pre WWII to look like.   More to follow for sure.


Edited by Stew44, 02 August 2018 - 03:23 PM.

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#2 shredder1656

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Posted 02 August 2018 - 01:47 PM

That's very cool! Congrats on the scope! Also, congrats TO the scope for being placed into someone's hands to secure its preservation.
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#3 Stew44

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Posted 02 August 2018 - 01:51 PM

Only one other Apollon resides in CN archives.  It was owned by MASILMW and shared here:

 

https://www.cloudyni...8-goto-apollon/

 

Only two pictures were presented.  One of the scope like the second pic above, and a blue case with I believe original handle, but after market clasps.  No label is present on the case above the handle.  MASILMW's Apollon shows diagonal and an eyepiece.   The ad above that I will duplicate here:

 

Apollon ad.jpg

 

On top of the case is a solar projector lens, and perhaps two more eyepieces and a solar eyepiece cap.  While we don't know what accys accompanied MASILMW's Apollon besides what is shown in the picture, the Apollon I received was missing all astronomical accessories.  Only an erector lens assembly was present and it is unique.  Here are the three erector lens assembly types:

 

P8020316.JPG

 

The top one came with my Apollon.  It has a .965 nose piece, but the tube going back to the T-30mm lens is smaller even than that.  The second erector lens assembly came from apfever and accompanied the eyepiece accessories that came with the 8" Goto reflector from 1959.  Since the third example accompanies all my post WWII Goto telescopes, I have to believe that the second example is a later erector lens assembly that was specialized for terrestrial telescopes and somehow wound up with the reflector.

 

The eye lens attached to the Apollon erector lens assembly is marked T-30mm Goto Kogaku. 

 

P8020327.JPG

 

The second example has an unlabelled eye ring.  But the tube is labelled Goto Japan T-30mm.  Goto Japan is a later label than Goto Kogaku, being used from 1959:

 

P8020322.JPG

 

Third example is the most familiar and is a separate erector lens assembly with eyepiece that can be used with the erector lens or as a standalone astronomical eyepiece.  In the erector lens assembly it is a 30mm lens, hence T30, but astronomical, by itself, it is a 40mm lens, hence AH40 labeled on the eye ring.  A little blury, but seen above at bottom of picture.

 

I like the first example as it is shorter and lighter than the other two.  It works as expected and gives a nice right side up image.

 

I do have to wonder if this Apollon was originally sold as a terrestial only telescope.


Edited by Stew44, 02 August 2018 - 05:21 PM.

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#4 Esso2112

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Posted 02 August 2018 - 02:18 PM

Wonderful find. The mount looks identical to my Uranus mount. My erect image tube is the one that has several pieces and the T30-A40 eyepiece. Unfortunately I am missing the tripod hub, but all the other accessories were there.
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#5 Esso2112

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Posted 02 August 2018 - 02:22 PM

Is the lens cell labeled?

#6 Stew44

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Posted 02 August 2018 - 02:42 PM

Is the lens cell labeled?

Nope, picture in a bit.



#7 memento

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Posted 02 August 2018 - 02:43 PM

I think scopes from these times are so interesting for us today cause (1) they are really so rare and (2) it's interesting to see some details are already very similar to 1960s (or even small today's) scopes, and some details are still very different. Thomas



#8 Stew44

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Posted 02 August 2018 - 06:17 PM

So what is missing from the scope to make it astronomical as well as terrestrial?  I put together some eyepieces that fit pretty well, a diagonal and a solar projection lens.

 

The ad states that terrestial is 25X.  The 30mm with 750mm focal length is 25X.  750mm focal length would make this 47mm ED scope f/16.  It is a Fraunhoffer design with three spacers.  If we go with 750mm then the astro magnifications given are 44X and 85X.  Latter is not clear.  For 44X it would require a 17mm eyepiece.  I have a R16mm Goto Japan eyepiece I will make use of.  85X requires a 9mm and I will make use of a Goto Kogaku H9mm.  I also have a Goto Kogaku Sun Filter Eyepiece Cap (never use unless using with Goto convertible prism diagonal/hershel wedge, and even then extreme care would be required).  I also have an unmarked diagonal and a spare solar projector I will add to this kit.  So these pieces simply need to find a spot in the case.

 

Correction - The ad says focal length of 800mm (f/17) so 25X with 30mm is off a bit.  That does however make the H9mm spot on and requires me to locate an H18mm to replace the Ramsden 16mm.

 

Apollon Adds.jpg


Edited by Stew44, 03 August 2018 - 01:49 PM.

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#9 Stew44

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Posted 02 August 2018 - 06:50 PM

Next I wanted to go over the case.  In many ways it very similar to my Uranus case.  Similar finish and interior.  But there are significant differences, one of which goes a long way toward dating this pre WWII.

 

Here is the front center of the case showing the case label. 

 

Apollon Label.jpg

 

As you might have expected or wondered, this is a Zeus branded Goto telescope.  Pretty much all marketing before WWII was likely done by mail order through the Japanese science magazine Kagaku Gahu-sha (Science Illustrated).  Also, when WWII started, Goto, the corporation was merged with Tokyo Clock Co. and the optical department was added to Fuji Film.  Goto-san maintained ownership of the private Goto Optical Co.  After WWII Goto incorporated again and Goto Optical Corp was the continuing business structure.  Below is the label from my Uranus case front.

 

P8020332.JPG

 

The difference I believe is that under the post WWII corporation, Goto felt it necessary to include patent or brand protection information on the label.  There is one Japanese character comprised of four small Japanese characters added to the front of the later Goto company name.  I will work to understand that character, but I believe that the original corporation was Goto Optical Research Corporation and post WWII it was simply named Goto Optical Corp.  I've spent some time with Google translate on these images and gotten a few words indicated, but going from Japanese to English is a difficult task (for me anyway).blush.gif

 

I have not seen a label like the one on this Apollon on any website or other Goto case.  I think it characterizes the label that would be found on telescopes sold by Goto Optical Research Corporation through Kagau Gahu-sha (Science Illustrated) from 1928-1938.


Edited by Stew44, 02 August 2018 - 07:51 PM.

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#10 Stew44

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Posted 02 August 2018 - 08:10 PM

Here is the interior of the Apollon case.  There are a few separators missing, but the basic eyepiece section, diagonal holder and image erector lens cutout (under the legs) are there.  Missing are the blocks for the solar projector, but I believe I have it in the right place.  The case for the Uranus is beneath it and obvious difference is the Apollon is meant to store legs in the case.  The tripod yoke is on the right.  The longer non-folding/sliding legs of the Uranus simply would not fit.  But case is likely made by same company (if not Goto).

 

P8020343.JPG

P8020344.JPG


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#11 Stew44

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Posted 03 August 2018 - 07:47 AM

Let's move to the OTA.  Here is a picture of the lens in the cell.

 

P8020333.JPG

 

The cell is solid metal.  With lens and retaining ring, this 47mm achromat cell weighs almost 3/4 lb (11oz).  Goto-san had a penchant it seems for placing small lenses in large telescopes.  Could be marketing or maybe was simply to over engineer to a large degree and support long focal length achromat.  Here is a picture of his first telescope offering.  A 25mm ED lens in what has to be 3" cell.

 

Gotos first telescope offering.jpg

 

And here is straight on shot of Apollon lens in cell.  Looks like a funnel from the front.

 

P8020334.JPG

 

Finally the other side with retaining ring.

 

P8020335.JPG

 

I DAPC'd the lens this morning and I couldn't be more pleased.  Three very straight lines showing excellent correction.  Lenses for early telescopes were supplied by Nippon Kogaku (Nikon), or a former Nippon Kogaku employee Masashige Tomioka of Tomioka Optical (more likely).


Edited by Stew44, 03 August 2018 - 08:33 AM.

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#12 Stew44

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Posted 03 August 2018 - 08:03 AM

The tube appears to be made of brass, and contains a single baffle.  From the front you can see the brass through the blackening.

 

P8020340.JPG

 

From the back you can see the supports for the mount screws and the screws for altitude rod bracket.

 

P8020338.JPG

 

The focuser is pretty basic cast aluminum rack and pinion.  There is some damage to the end of the draw tube but it holds the accys just fine and operates smoothly.  Nickle plating barely survives.

 

P8030346.JPG

 

The OTA has a nice solid feed and will be enjoyable to use on what appears to be a solid tripod and mount.


Edited by Stew44, 03 August 2018 - 08:34 AM.

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#13 Chuck Hards

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Posted 03 August 2018 - 08:17 AM

The brass tube is interesting.  I'm restoring a very early Unitron 60mm guidescope, it has a brass dewcap from the factory, though the main OTA itself is aluminum.



#14 Terra Nova

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Posted 03 August 2018 - 08:17 AM

It seems that Goto also used larger than average lens elements of their achromatic objectives than the retaining parts of their large, heavy cells. The two I had were certainly like that. My 76mm (marked 76mm ED on the cell had ~80mm lens elements as I remember. The ED in the case of the classic Gotos meaning Effective Diameter, not Extra-low-Dispersion glass.


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#15 Stew44

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Posted 03 August 2018 - 08:36 AM

It seems that Goto also used larger than average lens elements of their achromatic objectives than the retaining parts of their large, heavy cells. The two I had were certainly like that. My 76mm (marked 76mm ED on the cell had ~80mm lens elements as I remember. The ED in the case of the classic Gotos meaning Effective Diameter, not Extra-low-Dispersion glass.

The first telescope (25mm ED) had a 30mm diameter.


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#16 Stew44

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Posted 03 August 2018 - 08:45 AM

Now to the mount.  The tripod yoke appears to be solid brass or cast iron (magnet says it's cast iron).  It weighs 4lbs 3oz.  It is massive.

 

P8030350.JPG

 

The tripod legs have washers screwed to the mounting points and the leg tightening wing bolt press against flat metal disks installed on the legs.

 

P8030349.JPG

P8030347.JPG

 

Alas, there are none of the wonderful Goto labeled leg bolt heads.  frown.gif


Edited by Stew44, 04 August 2018 - 07:47 AM.

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#17 Stew44

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Posted 03 August 2018 - 09:50 AM

A pic of the Uranus with more modern leg and spreader pan set, and the Apollon in the foreground with no spreader.  Also the Uranus has a dew shield.

 

P8030354.JPG

 

Here is the Apollon mount with the Uranus mount behind.  Above the tripod yoke all appears very much the same as far as riser and altitude adjustment hardware.  Subtle changes to the mounting brackets on tubes and risers, and of course, the Uranus has a tripod yoke adapted to replace the missing one by Dave Trott.

 

P8030352.JPG

P8030353.JPG

 

I am very impressed with build quality of this Apollon telescope.  Goto continued to make telescopes in this manner until at least the 60's or early 70's, when they began to incorporate more modern composite materials to reduce weight and cost.


Edited by Stew44, 03 August 2018 - 10:05 AM.

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#18 Stew44

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Posted 03 August 2018 - 10:03 AM

Finally I wanted to present a likely history and chain of ownership.  I believe, as many of these telescopes were, a returning WWII US serviceman (Navy Chief Warrant Officer, won't name here, but his name, service number and address are stenciled on the top of the case in very military manner) was stationed or visited Japan and acquired the telescope, likely used.  He passed in 1992 and his wife, still living at the same address, passed in 2012.  The scope was then apparently sold at an estate sale to a family living about a block away.  CN'r illwttail acquired the scope from those folks still at that address, and I acquired it from him.

 

I used to think it quite normal that returning US servicemen from the Pacific Theater after WWII would bring back war memorabilia (flags, swords), but now at least two of my Goto telescopes came back with US servicemen from that time period or a little later.  A little different take on something to bring home from the war. waytogo.gif


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#19 illwhttail

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Posted 03 August 2018 - 10:24 AM

Couldn't be happier with where this scope ended up!
I know it's got a great home and will be around for a long time to come.
Still excited to see it restored to it's former Glory.

Scott.

#20 X3782

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Posted 03 August 2018 - 10:36 AM

Next I wanted to go over the case.  In many ways it very similar to my Uranus case.  Similar finish and interior.  But there are significant differences, one of which goes a long way toward dating this pre WWII.

 

Here is the front center of the case showing the case label. 

 

attachicon.gif
Apollon Label.jpg

 

As you might have expected or wondered, this is a Zeus branded Goto telescope.  Pretty much all marketing before WWII was likely done by mail order through the Japanese science magazine Kagaku Gahu-sha (Science Illustrated).  Also, when WWII started, Goto, the corporation was merged with Tokyo Clock Co. and the optical department was added to Fuji Film.  Goto-san maintained ownership of the private Goto Optical Co.  After WWII Goto incorporated again and Goto Optical Corp was the continuing business structure.  Below is the label from my Uranus case front.

 

attachicon.gif P8020332.JPG

 

The difference I believe is that under the post WWII corporation, Goto felt it necessary to include patent or brand protection information on the label.  There is one Japanese character comprised of four small Japanese characters added to the front of the later Goto company name.  I will work to understand that character, but I believe that the original corporation was Goto Optical Research Corporation and post WWII it was simply named Goto Optical Corp.  I've spent some time with Google translate on these images and gotten a few words indicated, but going from Japanese to English is a difficult task (for me anyway).blush.gif

 

I have not seen a label like the one on this Apollon on any website or other Goto case.  I think it characterizes the label that would be found on telescopes sold by Goto Optical Research Corporation through Kagau Gahu-sha (Science Illustrated) from 1928-1938.

 

   First plaque reads "Tokyo Setagaya (rural area of Tokyo)

   Second line, "Kabushiki-Gaisha", i.e., joint stock company, "Goto Kogaku Kenkyu Jyo" (Goto Optical Laboratory).

   There is no change in the company name compared to then and now, see http://www.goto.co.jp/, I hope I don't get into copyright trouble by pasting it below:

 

logo.png

 

   Second plaque is the same, except it lists loads of patent-pending numbers and skips the "joint stock company" designation.

   Last line, "This item was constructed using one or several of the above mentioned patents", legalese in old-style, idioms.....

 

   If you search for the patent JP;175742,C at the platpat search portal, there is a copy of the Goto patent filed 1947... I can't really understand the patent because the terminology and vocabulary are completely different compared to modern ones. They used a lot of German nouns instead of English ones I guess......

"This invention relates to a f3.5-4.5 Cooke triplet type telescope utilizing normal crown glass similar to K5 Jenaer glas....." (German Jenaer is transcribed as "Enna", didn't understand what "Enna garasu" was until I remembered they used to skip "J's". ugh.....say "Jena glass = Schott"! For uneducated people like me, it's a bit like reading Shakespeare in the original spellings.)


Edited by X3782, 03 August 2018 - 11:41 AM.

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#21 Stew44

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Posted 03 August 2018 - 11:52 AM

Thanks for the translation and the clarification in the edit.  Very nice.  I do remember Goto Optical Research Corporation from perhaps an advertising flyer or maybe research was improperly translated laboratory.  In any event, there were/are two corporations even if name is the same as one was nationalized when the war started according to the Goto 70th Anniversary Book (and perhaps three if current name was part of reorganization of some kind).  It is VERY interesting that they dropped the first character from the earlier label for the later case labels and the current company name on their website matches the older one with that character intact.  Marketing again perhaps.

 

Always so very nice when someone that reads the language can chime in.  I know that those of us that wonder about these things greatly appreciate your contribution.



#22 X3782

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Posted 03 August 2018 - 12:15 PM

This is really hard for me, I was never good with language at school, also the pic is not so clear.

It uses a lot of prewar old-style Kanji characters and loooooong run-on sentences, sorry for the bad

translation, they use stilted language which sounds really exaggerated....

 

"The Apollon" This device has an even larger objective than "The Comet", the vividness is high so

observations of even higher precision shall become possible, it adds to the tremendous grandeur

of space which is recognizable.

 

The objective is 47 mm diameter, focal length 800 mm, it has undergone precise construction and

testing, all types of aberrations have been duly removed so it is equivalent to a device of the highest

precision, when the  "seeing" is good it shall satisfy the theoretical values of an equivalent detection

limit of 10.6 magnitude, resolution 2.40 arc seconds. Two accessory eyepiece are of a superb

"Huygen" type, the image is vivid, for the sun, it is still useful for obtaining great statistical research values

(they strung together a lot of important-sounding words?), the volcanic craters of the moon

(.... volcanic?), the mountain ranges and valleys, the rings of Saturn shall be observed

with high vividness. Also the telescope includes a patented solar projection device of our laboratory,

the device projects the image of the sun of size up to (sorry, can't understand, they use a special Kanji that

might mean 0.5 m or 1.5 m) diameter, so that solar phenomena such as sunspots can be observed

with high vividness by several people simultalenously. In addition to this, if one inserts a microscope

slide(?), it shall become a highly performing solar microscope (not telescope?), this is vital for

ensuring good learning and improving efficiency in classroom applications.

 

The OTA is painted white, the front, the eyepiece area, and the mount is painted black, also "nickel" plated(?)

and is beautiful. The mount is of English-type alt alz with slow motion controls, so that the OTA can

be moved up/down/left/right, and point to the celestial target and track with ease, it has none of the

desperation and inconvenience of moving the OTA directly by hand in the dark which is seen in models

that do not have this feature.

 

The vivid "terrestial eyepiece" is a magnification 25x type, the vivid diagonal allows the telescope to be

excellent for terrestrial use as well.

 

Right side of the picture:

   Magnification:

        For astronomical use (eyepieces?):  44x 89x

        For terrestrial use: 25x

 

   Accessories

           Eyepieces for astronomical use, 18 mm and 9 mm      2 pc.

           "Sunglass"       x 1 pc.

           "Diagonal prism"    x 1 pc.

           "Solar projection device"   x 1 pc.

           "Wooden 2 stage tripod"    x 1 pc.

           "Case"    x 1 pc.

 

  This projection device is presumably that gizmo that is lying on the case underneath the telescope in the picture.

There should also be a "microscope slide", maybe a solar filter, also on the case.


Edited by X3782, 03 August 2018 - 12:48 PM.

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#23 shredder1656

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Posted 03 August 2018 - 12:41 PM

This is really hard for me, I was never good with language at school...


I wish I was as bad as you are at translating ANY language into English, let alone a language that doesn't even use the same characters. Heck! I wish I could even speak my own native language, English, fluently.

This scope and this thread, with all if this awesome history, is great. Love the details.

#24 X3782

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Posted 03 August 2018 - 01:01 PM

You can read the Declaration of Independence and all the letters of that time period without any trouble, that is actually great.

 

I can't read anything from that time period in my own country's history. I can barely decipher a magazine advertisement from the 1930's! lol.gif

The written language changed so dramatically, but not being able to read is pretty embarrassing!

It's like not being able to understand King James.


Edited by X3782, 03 August 2018 - 01:07 PM.

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#25 memento

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Posted 03 August 2018 - 01:32 PM

You can read the Declaration of Independence and all the letters of that time period without any trouble, that is actually great.

 

I can't read anything from that time period in my own country's history. I can barely decipher a magazine advertisement from the 1930's! lol.gif

The written language changed so dramatically, but not being able to read is pretty embarrassing!

It's like not being able to understand King James.

Here in Germany, we also have old-style letters. These old-style letters most ppl today connect with the Nazi times, but actually they are much older. It is called Sütterlin, or Fraktur. The printed letters I can somewhat read, but it's tiring. The letters have the exact same meaning as today's letters but they just look different. But there was also a special Sütterlin handwriting style, and I really cannot read many old texts or letters that e.g. my grandma once wrote down. Thomas


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