Welcome to CN, Leon't.
How dark your skies are will make a big difference, in addition to the other factors. My skies are challenging (Bortle 6, according to web sources) but I can see quite a few Messier objects with a 25mm eyepiece and my 80mm f/5 refractor. Of course, I know what I'm looking for, where it is, and what it looks like, so that's where the experience factor comes in.
I would start with bright open clusters on the list (M41 in Canis Major is a easy one, maybe M35, 36, 37, 38 in Gemini and Auriga as well). You should also be able to see globular clusters like M3, M5, and M13.
At 16x, these objects will be small and some will appear nebulous. If you want to zoom in, you'll need a Barlow or shorter focal length eyepiece. I've considered getting an inexpensive zoom eyepiece (like a Celestron) for use with my refractor, but I have other scopes so it hasn't been a priority.
I wouldn't expect a broadband filter to make a huge difference for emission and planetary nebulae. I would recommend a good UHC filter (Lumicon, Televue, Astronomik). If your skies are decent and you don't mind getting up in the a.m. hours, you should be able to see all kinds of targets in Scorpius and Sagittarius, including the nebulae M8 and M17. The Eagle Nebula needs either dark skies, big aperture, or both. With an 80mm, you might see the star cluster, but not the nebula unless you're under some really dark skies.
Here's a good resource for observing Messier objects:
Edited by vdog, 06 April 2020 - 11:15 AM.