Before you get digging too far into your controller, here are a few things that come to my mind: (now that you have the correct center-negative power adapter)
1) I do see some rust on the screws on yours - check to make sure that all electrical contacts are clean. On the 12v jack and also the 8 pin DIN jack/plug. Perhaps there is corrosion.
2) These can be powered 2 ways, if I remember. A) you can plug the power supply into the handset or B) you can plug the power supply into the 12v jack on the drive base. IIRC it should work either way. Keep in mind though, the 12v jack on the base may have been rewired to center positive at some point - verify that it hasn't been changed first.
3) I'm not certain on this - but the map/lamp switch may need to be turned on to power it up, it's been a few years since I used mine so I don't remember exactly. Try that, and see if your LED illuminates. In the following link I provided - that does seem to be the case on some of these. (It's a few pages in) Photoracer also mentioned this above.... so give this a shot first, if you do. If your lamp does not illuminate, it may be possible that it was fried from reverse polarity, but still test the drive for movement. If so, easy fix.
Also, the drive on this is reaaly slow, and pretty quiet. Mark your housing and RA circle with a pencil - then let it run pluggged in for an hour or so, it will have moved a bit.
I don't know if you have came across this thread yet or not, but it may be of help:
Hope you get yours working, they are very cool old drive setups. I still have mine, and could probably answer any questions regarding the 12v socket wiring on the base if needed.