I have this for testing purposes, along with the PCIe capture card.
The two SFP+ interfaces on the rear are operated in an aggregated link mode. The summed bandwidth of this arrangement allows the camera to send 4.5fps back to the PC at full sensor resolution and bit depth in any of the 4 main readout modes - Photographic, High Gain, and the two Extended Full Well modes, which are also found on other QHY cameras that have sensors in the same family. The QHY600 Pro model now has a 5th mode that's available only on it, which is a 14 bpp mode that enables a higher 10fps frame rate. Frame rates can also increase with a smaller ROI being specified.
There are use cases for this - occultation studies or other such applications that want a large FOV and a high frame rate. The Pro model is equipped with an accessory port which a QHY GPS receiver can be connected. This can use the timecode portion of the GNSS/GPS signal (every GNSS/GPS sat has a few atomic clocks) to timestamp frames or trigger synchronized exposures with other cameras.
So, for long exposure astrophotography, there's not really a compelling use case since you're not going to image at such frame rates. I suppose there could be one if your imaging PC is a distance away and you'd rather run your images over fiber rather than USB, but this is probably a bit overboard since people are putting their imaging PCs on the telescope itself or at least quite near it and remoting in over wifi.
The 10Gb interfaces are driven by a RTOS running on a controller inside the camera. I think that QHY is interested in developing a network (as in IP network) capability that streams sensor data over UDP, but I'm not sure how far along they are on this. It's software, so between firmware and any necessary FPGA software updates, existing cameras should be able to gain this functionality should it come to fruition.