Use a mono camera with 2 micron pixels or
Use a mono camera with 4 micron pixels and a 2x Barlow
I'm assuming, both systems will fit Jupiter inside the chip area.
Sampling stays the same between both. Resolution stays the same.
F/Ratio will change but the total amount of light gathered from Jupiter, will stay the same.
Since you double the area Jupiter is occupying on the chip on the 4µm sensor, the light gathered per pixel will also stay the same.
With the given parameters there are only two things, that can be consiered relevant:
2. the number of air-to-glass surfaces
Both are better without the barlow.
However, even though this answer is theoretically correct, I almost feel bad giving it, since I know, someone will equate my answer as "barlo=always bad" hich is obviously ridiculous.
Now what would I do? I'd take the picture with 2µm pixels AND the barlow. Why? because then with your hypothetical "seeing and transparency are pristine", I'd get double the resolution.
I just want a straight answer that doesn't involve discussion of the other camera's specs.
The problem with this approach is, you can change so much with "other specs" that the whole question becomes unanswerable. From the answers to such a hypothetical question, you can't derive any meaningful conclusions.
Edited by Prudentis, 08 May 2021 - 08:43 PM.