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November 2021 Celestial Calendar

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#1 Dave Mitsky

Dave Mitsky


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Posted 02 November 2021 - 08:51 PM

November Celestial Calendar by Dave Mitsky


All times are UT (subtract five hours after DST ends and, when appropriate, one calendar day)


11/1   Asteroid 2 Pallas is stationary at 2:00
11/2   Mercury is 4.1 degrees north-northeast of the first-magnitude star Spica (Alpha Virginis) at 7:00; a double Galilean satellite shadow transit begins at 11:02
11/3   The equation of time is at a maximum of 16.49 minutes at 3:00; the Moon is 5.3 degrees north-northeast of Spica at 17:00; the Moon is 1.2 degrees north of Mercury, with an occultation taking place in Bermuda, the northeastern United States, and most of Canada, at 19:00
11/4   The Moon, Mercury, and Mars lie within a circle with a diameter of 6.0 degrees at 6:00; the Moon is 2.1 degrees northeast of Mars at 7:00; New Moon (lunation 1223) occurs at 21:14
11/5   Uranus (magnitude 5.7, angular size 3.7 arc seconds) is at opposition at 0:00; the peak of the Southern Taurid meteor shower (a zenithal hourly rate of 10 per hour) is predicted to occur at 12:00; Venus is at its southernmost declination (-27.24 degrees) at 16:00; the Moon is at perigee, subtending 33' 18" from a distance of 358,844 kilometers (222,975 miles), at 22:18
11/6   The Moon is at the descending node (longitude 241.8 degrees) at 4:00; Venus is at its southernmost declination (-27.24 degrees) at 16:00; the Moon is 3.8 degrees north-northeast of the first-magnitude star Antares (Alpha Scorpii) at 18:00
11/7   Daylight Saving Time (DST) ends today
11/8   The Moon is 1.1 degrees north of Venus, with an occultation taking place in the western Aleutian Islands, most of Japan, southeastern Russia, northeastern China, and northeastern Mongolia, at 5:00
11/10 Mercury is 1.1 degrees north of Mars at 4:00; the Moon is 4.0 degrees south of Saturn at 14:00
11/11 First Quarter Moon occurs at 12:46; the Moon is 4.2 degrees southeast of Jupiter at 21:00; the Lunar X (Purbach or Werner Cross), an X-shaped clair-obscur illumination effect involving various rims and ridges between the craters La Caille, Blanchinus, and Purbach, is predicted to occur at 23:03
11/12 The peak of the Northern Taurid meteor shower (a zenithal hourly rate of 15 per hour) is predicted to occur at 11:00
11/13 The Moon is 3.9 degrees southeast of Neptune at 23:00
11/15 Jupiter is at eastern quadrature (90 degrees from the Sun) at 20:00
11/17 The peak of the Leonid meteor shower (a zenithal hourly rate of 15 per hour) is predicted to occur at 18:00
11/18 The Moon is 1.4 degrees southeast of Uranus at 4:00
11/19 Full Moon occurs at 8:57; a partial eclipse of the Moon begins at 7:18 and ends at 10:47; the Moon is 4.2 degrees southeast of the bright open cluster M45 (the Pleiades or Subaru) in Taurus at 17:00; the Moon is at the ascending node (longitude 61.7 degrees) at 18:00
11/20 The Moon is 6.2 degrees north of the first-magnitude star Aldebaran (Alpha Tauri) at 11:00
11/21 The Moon is at apogee, subtending 29' 25" from a distance of 406,279 kilometers (252,450 miles)
at 2:13
11/22 The Sun's longitude is 240 degrees at 3:00; the Moon is 1.8 degrees north of the bright open cluster M35 in Gemini at 8:00; Mercury is at the descending node through the ecliptic plane at 15:00; the Moon is at its northernmost declination for the year (26.34 degrees) at 23:00
11/23 The Sun enters Scorpius, at longitude 241.17 degrees on the ecliptic, at 6:00; the middle of the eclipse season (the Sun is at the same longitude as the Moon’s descending node) occurs at 15:00, the Moon is 6.1 degrees south of the first-magnitude star Castor (Alpha Geminorum) at 23:00; a double Galilean satellite shadow transit begins at 23:52
11/24 The Moon is 2.5 degrees south of the first-magnitude star Pollux (Beta Geminorum) at 4:00
11/25 The Moon is 3.6 degrees north-northeast of the bright open cluster M44 (the Beehive Cluster or Praesepe) in Cancer at 8:00
11/27 The Moon is 4.8 degrees north-northeast of the first-magnitude star Regulus (Alpha Leonis) at 3:00; the dwarf planet/asteroid 1 Ceres (magnitude +7.2) is at opposition in Taurus at 4:00; Last Quarter Moon occurs at 12:27
11/28 The Curtiss Cross, an X-shaped illumination effect located between the craters Parry and Gambart, is predicted to be visible at 0:44; asteroid 4 Vesta is in conjunction with the Sun at 10:00
11/29 Mercury is in superior conjunction with the Sun (1.451 astronomical units from Earth, latitude -2.2 degrees) at 5:00
11/30 The Sun enters Ophiuchus, at longitude 248.07 degrees on the ecliptic, at 2:00


Nicolaus Copernicus observes a lunar eclipse on November 5, 1500. Wolfgang Schuler independently discovers Tycho’s Supernova on November 6, 1572. Cornelius Gemma independently discovers Tycho’s Supernova on November 9, 1572. Tycho Brahe observes Tycho’s Supernova on November 11, 1572. SN 1604 (Kepler’s Supernova) becomes visible to the unaided eye on October 9, 1604. Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc makes the first telescopic observations of M42 (the Orion Nebula) on November 26, 1610. Jan de Munck discovers Comet C/1743 X1 (the Great Comet of 1744) on November 29, 1743. Captain James Cook observes a transit of Mercury from New Zealand on November 9, 1769. William Herschel discovers the ring galaxy NGC 922 on November 17, 1784. E.E. Barnard discovers the emission nebula NGC 281 (the Pacman Nebula) on November 16, 1881. The first photograph of a meteor was taken on November 26, 1885. The minor planet/comet 2060 Chiron or 95P/Chiron was discovered by Charles Kowal on November 1, 1977.


The peaks of the Southern and Northern Taurid meteor showers take place on November 5th and November 12th respectively. These streams form part of the complex associated with Comet 2P/Encke. The Leonid meteor shower occurs on the night of November 17th/18th. Leonid meteors are debris from the periodic comet 55P/Tempel-Tuttle, which last reached perihelion in 1998. Due to their high speed (71 kilometers or 44 miles per second), the fastest of any meteor shower, the Leonids produce more fireballs than most showers. Browse https://earthsky.org...-meteor-shower/ for information on the 2021 Leonids. See https://www.skyandte...howers-in-2021/ for information on 2021’s better meteor showers.


Information on passes of the ISS, the Tiangong, the X-37B, the HST, Starlink, and other satellites can be found at http://www.heavens-above.com/


The Moon is 25.4 days old, is 21.0% illuminated, subtends 31.3 arc minutes, and resides in Leo on November 1st at 0:00 UT. The Moon reaches its greatest northern declination on November 23rd (+26.3 degrees) and its greatest southern declination on November 9th (-26.2 degrees). Longitudinal libration is at a maximum of +7.2 degrees on November 13th and a minimum of -7.5 degrees on November 28th. Latitudinal libration is at a maximum of +6.8 degrees on November 12th and a minimum of -6.8 degrees on November 27th. Favorable librations for the following lunar features occur on the indicated dates: Crater Vashakidze on November 11th, Mare Humboldtianum on November 15th, Crater Andersson on November 25th, and Crater Catalan on November 28th. The Moon is at perigee (a distance of 56.26 Earth-radii) on November 5th and at apogee (a distance of 63.70 Earth-radii Earth-radii) on November 21st. New Moon occurs on November 4th. Large tides will take place for several days thereafter. An exceptionally deep partial lunar eclipse, the 45th of 70 eclipses in Saros 126, occurs on November 19th. Greatest eclipse occurs at 9:03. An article on the eclipse appears on pages 48 and 49 of the November 2021 issue of Sky & Telescope. A very slender waning crescent Moon occults Mercury on November 4th. Venus is occulted by a waxing crescent Moon in some locations in Asia on November 8th. Consult http://www.lunar-occ...ota/iotandx.htm for information on lunar occultation events. Visit https://saberdoesthe...does-the-stars/ for tips on spotting extreme crescent Moons and https://curtrenz.com/moon.html for Full Moon and other lunar data. Browse https://skyandtelesc...ads/MoonMap.pdf and https://celestron-si...RReeves-web.pdf and https://nightsky.jpl...ObserveMoon.pdf for simple lunar maps. Click on http://astrostrona.pl/moon-map for an excellent online lunar map. Visit http://www.ap-i.net/avl/en/start to download the free Virtual Moon Atlas. Consult http://time.unitariu...moon/where.html for current information on the Moon and https://www.fourmila.../lunarform.html for information on various lunar features. See https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/4874 for a lunar phase and libration calculator and https://quickmap.lro...2vIBvAXwF1SizSg for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Quickmap. Click on https://www.calendar...r/2021/november for a lunar phase calendar for this month. Times and dates for the lunar crater light rays predicted to occur this month are available at http://www.lunar-occ...o/rays/rays.htm


The Sun is located in Libra on November 1st at 0:00 UT. It moves into Scorpius on November 23rd and Ophiuchus on November 30th.


Brightness, apparent size, illumination, distance from the Earth in astronomical units, and location data for the planets and Pluto on November 1st: Mercury (magnitude -0.8, 5.8", 79% illuminated, 1.15 a.u., Virgo), Venus (magnitude -4.6, 25.6", 48% illuminated, 0.65 a.u., Ophiuchus), Mars (magnitude +1.7, 3.6", 100% illuminated, 2.59 a.u., Virgo), Jupiter (magnitude -2.5, 42.2", 99% illuminated, 4.68 a.u., Capricornus), Saturn (magnitude +0.6, 16.8", 100% illuminated, 9.91a.u., Capricornus), Uranus (magnitude +5.7, 3.8", 100% illuminated, 18.76 a.u. on November 16th, Aries), Neptune (magnitude +7.9, 2.3", 100% illuminated, 29.47 a.u. on November 16th, Aquarius), and Pluto (magnitude +14.3, 0.1", 100% illuminated, 34.63 a.u. on November 16th, Sagittarius).


During the evening, Venus is in the southwest, Jupiter and Saturn in the south, Uranus is in the east, and Neptune in the southeast. Jupiter and Uranus lie in the southwest and Neptune in the west at midnight. Mercury and Mars are located in the east and Uranus in the west the morning sky. 


Mercury is briefly visible in the eastern morning sky. The waning crescent Moon occults Mercury from Bermuda, the northeastern United States, and most of Canada on the afternoon of November 3rd. Mercury and the Moon will be only 15 degrees from the Sun so observing this event with a telescope must be done with extreme caution. Mercury is 1.1 degrees north of Mars on November 10th. The speediest planet is in superior conjunction with the Sun on November 29th.


Venus increases in brightness from magnitude -4.6 to magnitude -4.9 and 7.6 arc seconds in angular size during November. It decreases in illumination from 48% to 30%. A 3-day-old waxing crescent Moon passes 1.1 degrees north of Venus on the evening of November 7th in the Americas, with an occultation occurring in some parts of Asia.


Mars is lost in the glare of the Sun until very late in November, when it reappears in the morning sky.


Jupiter dims slightly from magnitude -2.5 to magnitude -2.3 and shrinks in angular size from 42.2 to 38.5 arc seconds. The gas giant remains approximately 16 degrees east of Saturn for the entire month. Jupiter is located 1.9 degrees northwest of the third-magnitude star Deneb Algedi on November 1st and 2.2 degrees northeast of the star on November 30th. The First Quarter Moon passes four degrees to the south of Jupiter on November 11th. Double Galilean satellite shadow transits take place on November 2nd and November 23rd. Information on Great Red Spot transit times and Galilean satellite events is available on pages 50 and 51 of the November 2021 issue of Sky & Telescope and online at http://www.skyandtel...watching-tools/ and https://www.projectp...om/jeve_grs.htm


At midmonth, Saturn's globe subtends 17 arc seconds. Its rings span 38 arc seconds and are inclined by 17 degrees, displaying the planet's northern hemisphere. The waxing crescent Moon passes four degrees south of Saturn on November 10th. Eighth-magnitude Titan is north of Saturn on November 6th and November 22nd and south of the planet on November 14th and November 30th. Iapetus is at inferior on November 17th and lies within one arc minute of Saturn from November 17th to November 19th. The peculiar satellite brightens to approximately eleventh magnitude by the middle of the month. For information on the positions of Saturn’s major satellites, browse http://www.skyandtel...-watching-tools


On November 1st, Uranus is located 0.8 degrees north of Omicron Arietis (magnitude +5.7). The ice giant shines at the same magnitude when it reaches opposition on November 4th and is visible for the entire night. At that time, Uranus lies 2.6 light hours from the Earth. As Phil Harrington describes in his Cloudy Nights article appearing at https://www.cloudyni...ng-uranus-r3263, Uranus can be seen without optical aid from a dark site. A nearly Full Moon passes less than two degrees southeast of Uranus on November 17th. Finder charts are available at http://www.nakedeyep....com/uranus.htm and https://in-the-sky.o...anus_2021_2.png and https://skyandtelesc...ne-and-uranus/ 


Neptune is located a bit more than three degrees northeast of the fourth-magnitude star Phi Aquarii in eastern Aquarius on November 1st. The waxing gibbous Moon passes five degrees southwest of Neptune on November 13th. Browse http://www.nakedeyep...com/neptune.htm and https://in-the-sky.o...tune_2021_1.pdf and https://skyandtelesc...une-and-uranus/ for finder charts. 


Finder charts for the dwarf planet Pluto can be found at pages 48 and 49 of the July 2021 issue of Sky & Telescope, on page 243 of the RASC Observer’s Handbook 2021, and online at https://in-the-sky.o...to_2021_2.png  


For more on the planets and how to locate them, see http://www.nakedeyeplanets.com/ 


The graphic at https://www.timeandd...lanets/distance displays the apparent and comparative sizes of the planets, along with their magnitudes and distances, for a given date and time.


Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko travels eastward through Gemini and into Cancer this month. The periodic comet may brighten from ninth to eighth magnitude during November. It passes about two degrees south of Pollux on November 7th and some seven degrees north of the open cluster M44 on November 29th. Comet C/2021 A1 (Leonard) is located in in Ursa Major and shines at tenth magnitude as November begins. This comet is predicted to brighten rapidly, moving into Coma Berenices by the end of the month. For additional information on comets visible this month, browse http://cometchasing.skyhound.com/ and http://www.aerith.ne...t/future-n.html and https://cobs.si/


A list of the closest approaches of comets to the Earth is posted at http://www.cometogra.../nearcomet.html


The dwarf planet/asteroid 1 Ceres travels northwestward through Melotte 25 (the Hyades) in Taurus this month. Ceres passes just south of Aldebaran on November 2nd and reaches opposition, shining at magnitude +7.2, in Taurus on November 23rd. Asteroid 521 Brixia (magnitude +10.4) is at opposition in Taurus on November 29th. Data on asteroid occultations taking place this month is available at https://www.asteroid.../2021_11_si.htm and www.poyntsource.com/New/Global.htm


A wealth of current information on solar system celestial bodies is posted at http://nineplanets.org/ and http://www.curtrenz....stronomy.html  


Information on the celestial events transpiring each week can be found at http://astronomy.com/skythisweek and http://www.skyandtel...ky-at-a-glance/


Two stars with exoplanetary systems, Upsilon Andromedae (magnitude +4.1) and 51 Andromedae (magnitude +5.5), can be seen this month without optical aid.


The famous eclipsing variable star Algol (Beta Persei) is at a minimum, decreasing in brightness from magnitude +2.1 to magnitude +3.4, on November 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th, 15th, 18th, 20th, 23rd, 26th, and 29th. Consult http://www.skyandtel...watching-tools/ and page 50 of the November 2020 issue of Sky & Telescope for the times of the eclipses. Algol is at minimum brightness for observers in North America for about two hours centered at 6:36 p.m. EST on November 14th and at 9:25 p.m. EST on November 17th. The chance of seeing Algol at least one magnitude fainter than normal on a random night is about 1 in 30. For more on Algol, see http://stars.astro.i.../sow/Algol.html and http://www.solstatio...2/algol3.htm   


Free star charts for the month can be downloaded at http://www.skymaps.com/downloads.html and http://whatsouttonight.com/ and https://www.telescop...thly-Star-Chart


Data on current supernovae can be found at http://www.rochester...y.org/snimages/


Finder charts for the Messier objects and other deep-sky objects are posted at https://freestarcharts.com/messier and https://freestarcharts.com/ngc-ic and https://www.cambridg...ctober-december


Telrad finder charts for the Messier Catalog and the SAC’s 110 Best of the NGC are posted at http://www.custerobs...cs/messier2.pdf and http://sao64.free.fr...ataloguesac.pdf respectively.


Information pertaining to observing some of the more prominent Messier galaxies can be found at http://www.cloudynig...r-astronomers/ 


Author Phil Harrington offers an excellent freeware planetarium program for binocular observers known as TUBA (Touring the Universe through Binoculars Atlas), which also includes information on purchasing binoculars, at http://www.philharrington.net/tuba.htm


Stellarium and Cartes du Ciel are useful freeware planetarium programs that are available at http://stellarium.org/ and https://www.ap-i.net/skychart/en/start


Deep-sky object list generators can be found at http://www.virtualcolony.com/sac/ and http://tonightssky.com/MainPage.php and https://telescopius.com/


Freeware sky atlases of varying "depth" can be downloaded at http://www.deepskywa...nter-atlas.html and http://www.olle-erik...night-sky-maps/ and https://allans-stuff...ude-star-atlas/


Seventy binary and multiple stars for November: Otto Struve 514, Alpha Andromedae (Alpheratz), Struve 3, h1947, Struve 19, Struve 24, 26 Andromedae, Struve 40, Pi Andromedae, Delta Andromedae, Struve 47, Eta Andromedae, Struve 79, Beta Andromedae (Mirach), Struve 108, Struve 179, South 404 (Andromeda); 1 Arietis, Struve 178, Gamma Arietis, Lambda Arietis (Mesarthim) (Aries); Struve 3053, Struve 3057, Struve 16, Struve 30, Otto Struve 16, Alpha Cassiopeiae (Schedar), Struve 59, Eta Cassiopeiae, Burnham 1, Struve 70, Otto  Struve 23, h1088, Struve 163, Struve 170, Struve 182 (Cassiopeia); 34 Piscium, Struve 8, 35 Piscium, Struve 15, 38 Piscium, 42 Piscium, 49  Piscium, 51 Piscium, 55 Piscium, 65 Piscium, Psi Piscium, Otto Struve 22, Struve 98, Otto Struve 26, Phi Piscium, Zeta Piscium, h636, Otto Struve 30, Struve 122, Struve 132, Otto Struve 31, 100 Piscium, Struve 145, 107 Piscium, h644 (Pisces); h5440, Kappa-1 Sculptoris, h1949, h3442, h3379, Tau Sculptoris, Epsilon Sculptoris (Sculptor); Struve 143, Struve 183 (Triangulum)


Notable carbon star for November: Z Piscium


Seventy deep-sky objects for November: M31, M32, M110, NGC 252, NGC 404, NGC 752 (Andromeda); NGC 680, NGC 691, NGC 697, NGC 772 (Aries); Cr 463, IC 1747, K14, M103, NGC 129, NGC 133, NGC 146, NGC 185, NGC 225, NGC 281, NGC 278, NGC 381, NGC 436, NGC 457, NGC 559, NGC 637, NGC 654, NGC 659, NGC 663, Tr 1 (Cassiopeia); NGC 40, NGC 188 (Cepheus); NGC 151, NGC 175, NGC 178, NGC 210, NGC 227, NGC 245, NGC 246, NGC 247, NGC 274, NGC 337, NGC 578, NGC 584, NGC 596, NGC 615, NGC 636, NGC 681, NGC 720, NGC 779 (Cetus); NGC 7814 (Pegasus); M76, St 4 (Perseus); M74, NGC 128, NGC 194, NGC 488, NGC 524 (Pisces); NGC 24, NGC 55, NGC 134, NGC 150, NGC 253, NGC 254, NGC 288, NGC 289, NGC 439, NGC 613 (Sculptor); M33, NGC 672 (Triangulum)


Top ten binocular deep-sky objects for November: M31, M33, M103, NGC 225, NGC 288, NGC 253, NGC 457, NGC 654, NGC 663, NGC 752


Top ten deep-sky objects for November: M31, M32, M33, M76, M103, M110, NGC 40, NGC 253, NGC 457, NGC 752


Challenge deep-sky object for November: IC 59 (Cassiopeia)


The objects listed above are located between 0:00 and 2:00 hours of right ascension.


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