Recently, NASA launched the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer which, along with the JWST, has new and unique observing capabilities.
More humbly, I have been struggling for over a year with my QHY550P camera with a polarization filter.
I finally learned enough Python (and about Windows 10) to enable me to create an image of the angle of polarization.
I used a celestron C90 piggybacking on my Atlas mount to capture this image of the Orion Nebula, in 360 seconds at 100 gain. I was using a V-band filter so no Hα.
The polanalyser code required some debugging and optimization, but it is able to demosaic the image into four channels, one for each polarization angel 0°, 45°, 90° and 135°. The values of four contiguous pixels are then used to calculate the degree of linear polarization and the angle of linear polarization. The code then converts the angle value into a color based on the following color wheel: