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HomeBrew Gen3 PCB: WiFi+BT+GPS+MUSB+Relay !

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#1 mlord

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Posted 09 December 2022 - 06:32 PM

Announcing the HomeBrew Gen3!  bounce.gif

 

This is a printed circuit board (PCB) based design for a HomeBrew interface to Celestron telescope AUX ports.  The base design consists of the PCB with an ESP32 DevKit-V1 module and assorted interfacing parts, and provides 2.4GHz WiFi, classic Bluetooth, and Mount-USB interfaces to the telescope, as well as an optional GPS receiver.  Fully compatible with CPWI, SkyPortal, and SkySafari+/Pro apps.

 

Unlike most previous HomeBrew designs, this one gathers in the past two years of experience-gained, and the resulting design works on all Celestron mounts with AUX ports.  Or at least all of the ones I've tried it on thus far!

 

This includes the venerable Nexstar-GPS (NXGPS) mount from the early 2000s, on which this device works with CPWI, SkyPortal, and SkySafari+/Pro, unlike Celestron's own WiFi devices.  A variation of this project also fully supports StarSense AutoAlign on that same mount, as well as on all others.

 

Here's what it looks like, assembled but not packaged in any way:

 

HomeBrew_Gen3_1.jpg HomeBrew_Gen3_2.jpg

 

That's the "basic" version, with a ton of features and solid functionality.  Suitable for almost everything.  A GPS receiver can also be plugged into the 4-pin header on it if desired.

 

A pair of PCBs can be combined to produce a dual AUX bus version, known as a Relay or Bridge device.  This is the configuration that is most useful on old mounts like the Nexstar-GPS, because it enables a StarSense HC and Camera to be plugged into the "Relay" side and work with old mounts.  It is shown here with the optional BN-180 GPS receiver attached:

 

HomeBrew_Gen3_3.jpg HomeBrew_Gen3_4.jpg


Edited by mlord, 10 December 2022 - 09:18 AM.

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#2 mlord

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Posted 09 December 2022 - 06:38 PM

This is a DIY HomeBrew project.  One can wire it from scratch by following the schematic (in a post further below), or by obtaining one or two of the PCBs (contact me for info):

 

HomeBrew_Gen3_0.jpg

 

The parts required to populate the PCB are shown here:

 

HomeBrew_Gen3_parts.jpg

  • one diode, either a 1N5817 (best: lowest power loss), or perhaps a 1N4007
  • two 470-ohm resistors
  • two 5K-ohm or 5.1K-ohm resistors
  • two 10K-ohm resistors
  • one 100K-ohm resistor
  • one 1M-ohm resistor
  • an RJ12 6P6C jack
  • a 30-pin ESP32 DevKit V1 module
  • one or two tiny slider switches, for WiFi-Mode and Mount-USB-Select
  • a mini 3-pin DC-to-DC converter with 5V output
  • a 74HCT125 chip
  • (optional) a 4-pin header for the GPS
  • (optional) a Beitian BN-180 GPS receiver module

That's the full parts list.  More information to follow.

 

EDIT:  Here is some info on where one can find some of the parts for this project:

 

Amazon:  diode, resistors, 30-pin ESP32 DevKit V1 modules, and BN-180 GPS.

AliExpress:  everything above, including:

ESP32 DevKit V1: https://www.aliexpre...1648850998.html

Mini DC-to-DC 5V Converter: https://www.aliexpre...3017156248.html

Beitian BN-180 GPS: https://www.aliexpre...4405692761.html

Switches (5mm version): https://www.aliexpre...3938407295.html

RJ12 Jack: https://www.digikey....00-003/14548962

 

Digikey.ca / Digikey.com and/or Mouser are also good places to find resistors, diodes, and the RJ12 jack with very fast delivery, but quite a bit more expensive.


Edited by mlord, 09 December 2022 - 10:17 PM.

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#3 mlord

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Posted 09 December 2022 - 09:04 PM

The Parts List above has now been updated with links for some specific components needed for the build, including the somewhat difficult-to-find mini DC-to-DC 5V converter module.

 

The design and prototyping of this project began in the 55+ page HomeBrew WiFi+BT thread here.  For more background, one can read a few of the relevant posts, beginning with these:

https://www.cloudyni...0#entry12306742

https://www.cloudyni...0#entry12311544

 

There is also an early schematic in that thread, but it has since changed slightly -- the two switches were not shown correctly there.  So here is the latest (EDIT: corrected now):

 

HomeBrew_Gen3_Schematic.jpg

 

And here is the Open-Source Arduino ESP32 source code for the project.  A single file, no added libraries required unless Mount-USB and GPS are both enabled.  Note that this code will also run on any prior version of the original HomeBrew ESP32 WiFi+BT hardware, though one will have to edit and change the "#define..PIN" lines to match the earlier hardware designs.

 

Attached File  esp32_wifi.ino.v5.8.txt   62.25KB   233 downloads

 

When wiring up the PCB, the ESP32 is the last/final piece to solder in place.  Do EVERYTHING ELSE before that, as otherwise it is impossible to complete.  smile.gif  I also nip off the protruding pins of the stuff that will be underneath the ESP32 first, to eliminate any possibility of them shorting out on the underside of the ESP32 (something Celestron ought to do in some of their mount designs..).

 

For packaging the end product, I recommend nipping off all of the protruding ESP32 header pins -- cut them flush to the board -- and then just encasing the project in clear heat-shrink tubing.  This produces a nice and compact unit that does not require "attaching to the mount" or any other complexities.  Mind you, it can still be attached to the mount if one wants, but just dangling it in space from 6" of cable off of an AUX port is perfect -- better WiFi than when up tight against the mount.  smile.gif


Edited by mlord, 09 December 2022 - 11:59 PM.

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#4 MikeHC8

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Posted 09 December 2022 - 09:21 PM

When you say it will work with NexStar GPS, does that mean without H.C. or do you still have to align first with the H.C.?  I have Gen 2 and still only have had the joy stick work only.  It will get GPS but will not work without H.C.



#5 mlord

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Posted 09 December 2022 - 09:35 PM

When you say it will work with NexStar GPS, does that mean without H.C. or do you still have to align first with the H.C.?  I have Gen 2 and still only have had the joy stick work only.  It will get GPS but will not work without H.C.

The HomeBrew Gen3 plugs into either AUX1 or AUX2 on the Nexstar GPS mount.  SkyPortal, SkySafari+, SkySafari-Pro, and CPWI can then connect to the mount over WiFi or Bluetooth, and perform alignments, Go-To, and everything else.  No hand-controller is required for anything, though some people keep it around for the slew buttons.  I have tested all of this on a Nexstar-GPS-9.25".

 

A direct USB cable connection is also possible between a PC and the HomeBrew Gen3, and CPWI again gets full functionality over that wired connection -- Pin-D15 of the ESP32 must be switched/wired to GND to enable the Mount-USB function.


Edited by mlord, 10 December 2022 - 09:22 AM.

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#6 mlord

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Posted 09 December 2022 - 10:09 PM

I have Gen 2 and still only have had the joy stick work only.  It will get GPS but will not work without H.C.

Try updating the Arduino code to v5.8 (current).  You'll have to edit the PIN definitions to match what your older design uses, but that version will give it a better chance of working.  The compatibility code has been fixed up since earlier versions.  You can define BUSYIN and BUSYOUT to be the same pin, if that's how yours is wired.

 

If it still doesn't work after that, then it's the hardware.  The latest code will blink the BLUE LED three times after power-up if it is happy with the mount AUX bus interface.  Otherwise you'll need the Gen3 hardware.


Edited by mlord, 10 December 2022 - 12:01 AM.


#7 mlord

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Posted 09 December 2022 - 11:08 PM

More photos of the first unit from post #1 above, showing the MUSB (Mount-USB) Select switch, the WiFi Mode switch, a BN-180 GPS receiver piggybacked on top, and general views all around.  All leftover protruding header pins have been clipped flush.

 

Note that I have applied a bit of Kapton (electrical) tape between the ESP32 board and the GPS module, to avoid short-circuiting anything.  There's also a small bit of doubled-sided tape there to hold it in place until the heat-shrink step later on.

 

1.jpg 2.jpg 3.jpg 4.jpg 5.jpg

 

On that last photo, the switch to the right side of the RJ12 jack is the WiFi mode switch.  DOWN is for "direct connect", and UP is for Access Point mode.  This switch can be toggled on-the-fly.

 

The switch on the left side of the RJ12 jack is the MUSB (Mount-USB) Select switch.  DOWN is for normal operation, where the USB port shows debug information etc., and UP is for MUSB mode.  The setting must be selected prior to power-on.

 

Next step is to blob a bit of hot-melt glue around the two switches for mechanical reinforcement, and then encase it in some clear heat-shrink tubing.  Photos to follow.


Edited by mlord, 10 December 2022 - 12:02 AM.


#8 mlord

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Posted 09 December 2022 - 11:35 PM

Next step is to blob a bit of hot-melt glue around the two switches for mechanical reinforcement, and then encase it in some clear heat-shrink tubing.

And here we have it:

 

6.jpg 7.jpg 8.jpg 9.jpg 10.jpg

 

That's it.  All finished.  No 3D-printing, no inventive way to mount it to the scope.  Just a short AUX cable, plugged in and left to dangle from the mount, hopefully with the antennas facing outward.  :)


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#9 mlord

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Posted 09 December 2022 - 11:49 PM

For Bluetooth connections between a smart phone/tablet and this or any other HomeBrew project, some extra steps are required.  That is because neither SkyPortal nor SkySafari include native support for an AUX port Bluetooth connection.  So an Android app (sorry iFruit users..) is needed to relay the Bluetooth connection onto a TCP/IP connection, or what Celestron incompletely calls "WiFi".

 

More info about how to set that up is in this thread:  https://www.cloudyni...aux-connection/


Edited by mlord, 09 December 2022 - 11:50 PM.


#10 mlord

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Posted 10 December 2022 - 01:44 PM

When wiring up the PCB, the ESP32 is the last/final piece to solder in place.  Do EVERYTHING ELSE before that, as otherwise it is impossible to complete.

Here are a couple more photos showing where things get placed onto both sides of the PCB, before it becomes ready to attach the ESP32 module:

 

bottom_side.jpg top_side.jpg

 

The placements for the eight resistors are labelled on the board (underneath the resistors), showing which resistor value goes where.

 

EDIT:  When assembling this project, I find it easiest to do it in this sequence:

  1. Resistors
  2. Diode
  3. 74HCT125
  4. DC-to-DC converter:  Hold it flat against the PCB while soldering the first pin.
  5. 4-pin GPS header if wanted -- It is better to leave this out, and solder GPS wires to the pads.
  6. RJ12 connector.  Any earlier, and it gets in the way.
  7. ESP32 module
  8. Switches

The 4-pin GPS header is convenient for testing a GPS receiver, but it is very much in the way of installing a Mount-USB Select switch.  So I find it better to not install those four pins, and instead (later) just solder the GPS wires directly to the pads (holes) on the board.


Edited by mlord, 11 December 2022 - 09:35 AM.

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#11 MikeHC8

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Posted 10 December 2022 - 08:34 PM

Thank you for the information.  I check Sunday when I power up.  It will allow me to see via Sky Safari but when I try to use it tells me the scope will not respond to command.


Edited by MikeHC8, 10 December 2022 - 08:37 PM.


#12 mlord

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Posted 10 December 2022 - 08:48 PM

Thank you for the information.  I check Sunday when I power up.  It will allow me to see via Sky Safari but when I try to use it tells me the scope will not respond to command.

That sounds like the physical layer, then.  Exactly what this Gen3 stuff fixes.


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#13 descott12

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Posted 10 December 2022 - 09:10 PM

Awesome work!


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#14 mlord

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Posted 11 December 2022 - 10:37 AM

I have added instructions above on the best sequence for soldering components to the PCB.  I find doing it in that order to be easier than other sequences.

 

Meanwhile, during testing yesterday, I noticed that the Bluetooth was mostly not working.  BUG.  Fixed!  smile.gif  But then later I noticed a problem with the v1.0.6 Arduino ESP32 support which causes the device to crash sometimes after having used Bluetooth.  This issue has also been reported elsewhere, and seems to have something to do with a memory leak in the Bluetooth/WiFi coexistence layer, which is enabled by default in the Arduino ESP32 support builds.  I am using the older 1.0.6 version, and perhaps this has since been fixed in the newer 2.x versions.. Dunno.

 

But a workaround seems to be to just turn the Bluetooth off, and then on again after each connection, so that's what the code here now does.

 

Version v5.9 of the Arduino ESP32 code for this project is attached.  You need this if you want to use Bluetooth.  ChangeLog:

  • Restart the BT stack after BT disconnect as workaround for Coexistence bug.
  • Note: WiFi/BT Coexistence bug in ESP32 support causes it to crash after first BT connection.
  • Fix bluetooth: wasn't working reliably.
  • Stop bluetooth after 15-secs of no rx activity.
  • Re-implement handling/relaying of StarSense Camera packets so it works across the Relay.
  • Tidy up auxtest logic.

Attached File  esp32_wifi.ino.v5.9.txt   62.92KB   86 downloads


Edited by mlord, 11 December 2022 - 02:02 PM.


#15 scopewizard

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Posted 11 December 2022 - 12:27 PM

Can wait to try mine.



#16 Mike_SF

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Posted 12 December 2022 - 12:33 PM

Thanks for the great work! Now here's a parts question you probably weren't expecting - What size heat shrink tubing are you using? I usually 3d print boxes, but this is much easier.

#17 mlord

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Posted 12 December 2022 - 02:37 PM

Here is v5.10 (five dot ten) of the ESP32 Arduino code for this project.

This version introduces Nunchuck slew/focus controller support on the Gen3!

 

Attached File  esp32_wifi.ino.v5.10.txt   71.46KB   78 downloads

 

The "Nunchuck" is a game-controller commonly available at Amazon and other outlets, designed to plug into a Nintendo Wii controller.  But here, we use it as a tactile manual Slew controller with variable speed.  When the "C" button on the controller is held in, it then operates as a manual Focus adjustment for the Celestron Focus Motor (if present).

 

Gen3_Nunchuck.jpg

 

As such, I find it rather useful in combination with a smartphone or tablet running SkyPortal/SkySafari.  The Slew controller enables adjustment of the scope while peering through an eyepiece, thereby "fixing" the biggest complaint about using a touch-screen to control the mount.

 

My next post will show how it gets wired into a Gen3 PCB.


Edited by mlord, 12 December 2022 - 04:22 PM.


#18 mlord

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Posted 12 December 2022 - 03:06 PM

Here are some photos showing how I wired in a Nunchuck Slew/Focus controller to the HomeBrew Gen3 PCB.  There are two approaches one could take:  (1) Cut off the bulky connector, and then wire the Nunchuck permanently to the Gen3 PCB; or (2) use an AdaFruit #4836 Wii Nunchuck Breakout Adapter as a connector for plugging/unplugging the Nunchuck.  For this version, I used the latter approach.  Here are the core components required:

 

nunchuck1.jpg adafruit_adapter.jpg

 

One problem with the AdaFruit board, is the notches for securing the Nunchuck plug aren't quite wide/long enough for the Nunchuck clones I use.  So I have lengthened those notches with a sharp utility knife until the plug here fits and clicks into place.  This can be seen in the third photo below.

 

To provide mechanical strength for the wiring, a scrap of leftover PCB breadboard is used, soldered to the AdaFruit adapter with a bit of Kapton electrical tape covering one end to prevent short-circuits with the AdaFruit adapter:

 

nunchuck2.jpg nunchuck3.jpg nunchuck4.jpg nunchuck5.jpg

 

Next, a short scrap of Cat5e solid-core networking cable is taken apart, and later reassembled, using four of the original eight conductors for this project:

 

nunchuck6.jpg nunchuck7.jpg nunchuck8.jpg nunchuck9.jpg

 

The end of the cable with the AdaFruit adapter later gets encased in clear heat-shrink tubing for protection.  But meanwhile, the other end now gets wired into the I2C pins of the ESP32, along with GND and +3.3V.  I used +3.3V and GND from the GPS header here, but one could instead use the nearby 3.3V/GND pins of the ESP32.  The other two wires go to pins D22 and D21 of the ESP32 module.  I threaded them through the Gen3 PCB holes to get to the ESP32, but one can solder them to the pins instead if that's what yours has:

 

nunchuck10.jpg nunchuck11.jpg

 

And here it is, completed!   After testing, some 32mm heat-shrink tubing will be applied to the HomeBrew Gen3 PCB and ESP32, for protection.

Attached Thumbnails

  • nunchuck12.jpg

Edited by mlord, 12 December 2022 - 04:23 PM.

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#19 mlord

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Posted 12 December 2022 - 03:11 PM

What size heat shrink tubing are you using? I usually 3d print boxes, but this is much easier.

I use clear 50mm (when flat) 3:1 heat-shrinkable tubing, that I found on Amazon.  Not sure what the exact link was at this point.  I believe this is called 1.25" (32mm) tubing.   EDIT: Circumference is 100mm (2 x 50mm), and that divided by Pi gives about 32mm.


Edited by mlord, 12 December 2022 - 03:36 PM.

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#20 mlord

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Posted 12 December 2022 - 03:26 PM

Here is the fully completed HomeBrew Gen3 with the Nunchuck adapter included, all now encased with clear, 32mm heat-shrink tubing.  I added one more cable tie around the Nunchuck wiring at the front corner hole of the PCB.  All is nice and secure now.  EDIT:  Oh, looks like I need to trim a bit of excess away from the USB connector!  :)

 

Gen3_with_Nunchuck.jpg Gen3_with_Nunchuck2.jpg


Edited by mlord, 12 December 2022 - 03:50 PM.


#21 mlord

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Posted 13 December 2022 - 10:43 AM

When HomeBrew Gen3 is used to assemble a Relay/Bridge for say, an older NXGPS or AVX mount, one gets a single Relay port by default.  But it is quite easy to now plug in ordinary RJ12 splitters to expand that capability.  Eg. this:

 

Gen3_Relay_w_Splitter.jpg

 

EDIT:  For those assembling a HomeBrew Gen3 module, if you are lucky enough to acquire the ESP32 module without pre-soldered pins, then this photo shows which pins to populate.  Leave the others not-installed, or at least not-soldered.  That way, it is easier to wire in add-ons in the future.  Eg. the Nunchuck interface shown earlier in this thread.

 

gen3_pins_needed.jpg

 

The only pins needed to begin with are, 3V3, GND, RX2, TX2, VIN, GND, D25, D33, D32, and D35.  I also like to slightly push in the GND pin adjacent to 3V3, so that there's more of it on the other side to solder the WiFi Mode Switch to.


Edited by mlord, 13 December 2022 - 12:35 PM.

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#22 Wyphy

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Posted 14 December 2022 - 02:29 PM

What wifi channel is used when the unit is in standalone mode?  Is it fixed? Random or round robin?  Can it be edited in the code file?

Obviously only want to use the clear channel standards for whatever mode it's using, presumably g or n.

I know wifi supposedly doesn't care that there's cochannel devices, but still, having 5 devices per channel is better than having 20 on one channel (presuming g/n 20MHz channels).

 

Also, not to be nitpicky, but as the 74HCT125 has several flavors, might be good to include a link for them in the BOM.

I haven't checked the difference in the models (E, N, NE4, at the least on Mouser) and maybe it doesn't matter for this project, other than to get a PDIP14 package.



#23 mlord

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Posted 14 December 2022 - 04:34 PM

What wifi channel is used when the unit is in standalone mode?

..

the 74HCT125 has several flavors, might be good to include a link for them in the BOM.

Just PDIP is all that matters for the chip.  The flavours are pretty much all identical except for the package type, and the brand.  That's the idea with standardized parts families like 74HCT.

 

For WiFi, the ESP32 lower-level OS does a quick scan at start-up, and is supposed to choose the clearest channel at that time.  We could add a feature to enable forcing a specific channel number -- you'd have to telnet to port 3000 to do that.  Not there today though!


Edited by mlord, 14 December 2022 - 09:29 PM.


#24 Wyphy

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Posted 15 December 2022 - 11:23 AM

Probably not worth it.

Was just thinking about club public nights or star parties.



#25 mlord

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Posted 15 December 2022 - 11:52 AM

Bluetooth.  :)




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