Jump to content

  •  

CNers have asked about a donation box for Cloudy Nights over the years, so here you go. Donation is not required by any means, so please enjoy your stay.

Photo

Love chasing Meteorites

  • Please log in to reply
145 replies to this topic

#1 Oddyse

Oddyse

    Viking 1

  • *****
  • topic starter
  • Posts: 521
  • Joined: 20 Feb 2021

Posted 22 April 2023 - 09:25 AM

  Thought this was a cool meteorite capture. Espirit 120, Canon T3i, 1600 ISO, 1.3 sec. No stacking or post processing. Meteorites are always out there, partly cloudy, moon glow, any season. Always fun to review shots the next day and see what you did or didn't get. Tennessee

Attached Thumbnails

  • 0418232103_HDR~2.jpg

Edited by Oddyse, 22 April 2023 - 09:29 AM.

  • Sheridan, lee14, ssmith and 4 others like this

#2 lee14

lee14

    Vanguard

  • *****
  • Posts: 2,180
  • Joined: 19 Dec 2009
  • Loc: CNY

Posted 22 April 2023 - 09:31 AM

Good capture, but it's a meteor. It becomes a meteorite only after landing, and most never make it to the ground.

Lee


  • rutherfordt, Gandalf223, Rickycardo and 3 others like this

#3 Oddyse

Oddyse

    Viking 1

  • *****
  • topic starter
  • Posts: 521
  • Joined: 20 Feb 2021

Posted 22 April 2023 - 10:21 AM

.... This one almost a "meteorite." Same setup with filters post.  Regards

Attached Thumbnails

  • 0414231953~2.jpg

Edited by Oddyse, 22 April 2023 - 10:22 AM.

  • Sheridan, lee14, CharLakeAstro and 2 others like this

#4 lee14

lee14

    Vanguard

  • *****
  • Posts: 2,180
  • Joined: 19 Dec 2009
  • Loc: CNY

Posted 22 April 2023 - 12:32 PM

Looks like the second one was tumbling to a fair degree. Probably a good indication it had some 'size', perhaps enough to make it to the ground. Here's some guidelines and techniques for possible recovery if you suspect that has occurred.

 

https://ares.jsc.nas...ind-meteorites/

 

Lee



#5 Oddyse

Oddyse

    Viking 1

  • *****
  • topic starter
  • Posts: 521
  • Joined: 20 Feb 2021

Posted 22 April 2023 - 01:07 PM

  Thanks, sorry about the terminology but my main point being there is a lot to photograph out there besides DSOs, Jupiter, Saturn, etc. And with no post-processing to deal with. Lee, don't know if that one hit the ground or not. Would have been hard to find anyway with wide open woods and pasture around here. I checked the paper for a few days and no one reported a meteorite hit. Had one come right over me one night ! Could hear it sizzling like bacon and it left a vapor trail for miles. Something I will never forget. Astronomy is fun! All my best


  • lee14 and DevilJack like this

#6 Sheridan

Sheridan

    Vanguard

  • *****
  • Posts: 2,472
  • Joined: 12 Oct 2005
  • Loc: Houston Tx.

Posted 23 April 2023 - 06:04 PM

Was clouded over here

#7 LeoUK

LeoUK

    Vostok 1

  • -----
  • Posts: 177
  • Joined: 19 Nov 2022

Posted 03 May 2023 - 09:04 PM

Nice catches, but not meteorites, or meteors. It looks more like you've managed to image the train that a meteoroid leaves behind when it enters our atmosphere.

 

It's been a while since I imaged meteors with a DSLR/stills, but here's a crop of a 2021 Perseid meteor (70D + 24/1.4L - exposure was probably 15s @ f1.4).

IMG_2528_c.jpg

 

As you say, meteors can be observed on any night (providing you can see at least some stars). Some of the best displays I've observed were due to meteor showers peaking, and sometimes you can catch a nice surprise like there was on the night of Nov 16-17 1998 which is what first got me interested in the subject.

 

But nowadays I try to set up cameras to try to record footage of brighter events (especially) whenever it's clear, and they probably catch an average of 1 or 2 fireballs (very bright meteors) every clear night, though most are a long way off/relatively small. It's almost the 1 year anniversary of my best catch so far. The icing on the cake was that I was stood next to the camera at the time, and saw the entire event unfold from start to fragmentation, as well as recording it! That was probably the 2nd best fireball I've ever observed, the "Midnight fireball" (not my footage) a few years back was probably the best, and was also observed by my wife who was with me me at the time.

 

I'd also encourage others to set up a camera or two when it's clear - it's estimated that ~100 tonnes of extra terrestrial material enters the atmosphere on an average night, much of it microscopic, but there are larger objects, and a bright fireball can be visible from at least 5 or 600 km away, so the odds are in your favor as long as you have reasonably good views of the sky.


  • B. Hebert and Oddyse like this

#8 Oddyse

Oddyse

    Viking 1

  • *****
  • topic starter
  • Posts: 521
  • Joined: 20 Feb 2021

Posted 04 May 2023 - 08:26 AM

  Thanks Leo, meteors just one more example of fun with astronomy. Love your pictures, I haven't managed to catch a real fireball breaking up yet. Not sure if I'm catching trails or the actual meteor. I have been told that (solar) winds are causing all the turns and zigzags in my photos. But if the wind is that severe up there I don't see how it could be safe for anybody or anything......

  Appreciate you sharing and your knowledge of the subject. And photography expertise.  One more of mine attached and I will be out tonight looking for more! Tennessee, USA

Attached Thumbnails

  • 1019221021_HDR.jpg

  • lee14, Maximumron and LeoUK like this

#9 lee14

lee14

    Vanguard

  • *****
  • Posts: 2,180
  • Joined: 19 Dec 2009
  • Loc: CNY

Posted 04 May 2023 - 09:24 AM

Winds are responsible for disrupting the trail, yes. Not solar wind though, that's not an atmospheric phenomenon. The jet stream, at a height of 4 to 8 miles and reaching speeds of a couple hundred miles per hour, or its disruptive effects on the lower atmosphere, is the culprit. The actual meteor is the bright 'point' at the head of the trail, the rest is incandescent gas (and perhaps some fine particulates) as the high velocity passage of the meteorite compresses the air in front of it. If the meteor itself illuminated the pixels or film, it would be a straight line.

 

Lee


Edited by lee14, 04 May 2023 - 09:27 AM.

  • LeoUK likes this

#10 Oddyse

Oddyse

    Viking 1

  • *****
  • topic starter
  • Posts: 521
  • Joined: 20 Feb 2021

Posted 04 May 2023 - 10:35 AM

Thanks Lee. You're very knowledgeable, helpful, and a great photographer also. But I am still trying to understand all those turns and zigzags in my photos. The meteor in my last picture was way up in space so how could winds be involved? Is everybody absolutely 100% positive that meteors travel in a straight line? Tennessee

#11 lee14

lee14

    Vanguard

  • *****
  • Posts: 2,180
  • Joined: 19 Dec 2009
  • Loc: CNY

Posted 04 May 2023 - 11:21 AM

Thanks Lee. You're very knowledgeable, helpful, and a great photographer also. But I am still trying to understand all those turns and zigzags in my photos. The meteor in my last picture was way up in space so how could winds be involved? Is everybody absolutely 100% positive that meteors travel in a straight line? Tennessee

It is only when passing through the atmosphere that a meteor becomes visible. None of these are large enough to be seen while still in the vacuum of space. There's enough atmosphere at 60 miles or so to produce the visible effects, so they are high enough to appear up in space, but they're really not. Larger asteroidal bodies are detectable while outside the atmosphere, by reflected sunlight, but typical meteors that leave visible trails are very much smaller, often no larger than a grain of sand. There are larger and far brighter ones of course, generally seen as bolides, that are massive enough for material to reach the ground, often after breaking up while still aloft.

 

The turns and zig zags have little to do with the stone itself, it's the atmosphere dispersing the trail left behind. Irregularly shaped meteors may tumble in flight, contributing to a non-linear trail, but it's mostly air currents that create the effect.

 

Strictly speaking, meteorites are not traveling in a straight line, they're all in orbit, but the for the relatively short path through the atmosphere, it's a straight line.

 

In this time-lapse image (not mine) the atmospheric paths are straight because it was the moving meteors themselves recorded on film, not the incandescent air or material it left in its wake.

 

Lee

 

Eta-Aquarids-2.jpeg


  • Sheridan, Bretw01, Maximumron and 2 others like this

#12 Oddyse

Oddyse

    Viking 1

  • *****
  • topic starter
  • Posts: 521
  • Joined: 20 Feb 2021

Posted 04 May 2023 - 12:57 PM

Okay, thanks again. So any meteor I can see is actually in the earth's atmosphere and I am photographing trails not meteors. But look at the trail in my last picture, the thing does an almost perfect 1/2 loop! Could wind do that? And the meteor itself running 20-30 miles/second? All that wind In 1.3 second exposure with Canon T3i? I am sure you will say yes and I know you are right! Thanks and enjoyed last picture. Tennessee
  • lee14 likes this

#13 LeoUK

LeoUK

    Vostok 1

  • -----
  • Posts: 177
  • Joined: 19 Nov 2022

Posted 04 May 2023 - 02:48 PM

Okay, thanks again. So any meteor I can see is actually in the earth's atmosphere and I am photographing trails not meteors. But look at the trail in my last picture, the thing does an almost perfect 1/2 loop! Could wind do that? And the meteor itself running 20-30 miles/second? All that wind In 1.3 second exposure with Canon T3i? I am sure you will say yes and I know you are right! Thanks and enjoyed last picture. Tennessee

Think of the atmosphere as being like an onion: many layers on top of each other. Each layer has it's own wind-speed (usually very high compared to near the ground) and direction.

 

Now imagine that a meteor is like a knife being plunged into the onion. The knife/meteor penetrates multiple layers if it's angle of entry is not very low, and each layer pulls/distorts the train in a different way. This can make the train both loop round and get torn apart over time, and it does not take long before the train starts to distort - for example, have a close look at this real-time footage of a Perseid fireball and it's rapidly distorting train. You can see the train starting to get kinks in it even before the meteor itself has gone.

 

Here's a timelapse of long lived persistent train(53 x 6 sec exposure covering a total of 5 mins 43.5 sec) that was caused by a sporadic fireball. Unfortunately the camera was pointed the other way, and missed the fireball itself, but I did observe the event visually, and was able to run over to the camera, which was already running, and point it in the direction of the train within a few seconds of the fireball.


Edited by LeoUK, 04 May 2023 - 02:53 PM.

  • lee14 likes this

#14 Oddyse

Oddyse

    Viking 1

  • *****
  • topic starter
  • Posts: 521
  • Joined: 20 Feb 2021

Posted 04 May 2023 - 03:29 PM

Thanks again! I think the onion-layer description convinced me beyond a shadow of doubt! No doubt you are a scholar in this field to be able to understand and explain it that way. Just one more question.... Even with my high-powered telescope, 50-250+ magnification, you are saying the only meteors visible are in the realm of our atmosphere? I am learning a lot here, thanks for more great pictures and information. Tennessee


Edited by Oddyse, 04 May 2023 - 03:33 PM.

  • lee14 likes this

#15 LeoUK

LeoUK

    Vostok 1

  • -----
  • Posts: 177
  • Joined: 19 Nov 2022

Posted 04 May 2023 - 09:29 PM

Thanks again! I think the onion-layer description convinced me beyond a shadow of doubt! No doubt you are a scholar in this field to be able to understand and explain it that way.

You're very welcome. Feel free to fire away. I'm always happy to pass on what I know - any excuse to talk about meteors really ;)

 

Even with my high-powered telescope, 50-250+ magnification, you are saying the only meteors visible are in the realm of our atmosphere? I am learning a lot here, thanks for more great pictures and information. Tennessee

 

Well, our atmosphere extends down all the way from perhaps a few hundred km (exactly where it stops/stars is probably debatable) right down to our feet, and yes, a meteor can only exist in our atmosphere. It is the act of the meteoroid hitting the air molecules which make up our atmosphere that causes the luminous phenomenon we know as a "meteor". Previous to that meteoroids are effectively invisible, although small asteroids (a few feet across) are now starting to be spotted before they hit, so keep an eye out for the next prediction. The last one would have been visible from where I am in the UK had the clouds parted! More on that can be found if you look here.

 

Since meteoroids usually enter the atmosphere with velocities ranging between about 10-72 km/s, when they slam into air molecules at those kinds of speeds, molecules (both atmospheric and belonging to the meteoroid) are ionized/excited, and the result is that photons (light) is emitted at specific wavelengths that correspond with the elements involved.

 

For example green light @ 557.7 nm is emitted when oxygen is ionized by fast meteors like Leonids (~72 km/s) or Perseids (~58 km/s) first become visible, which can be as high up as 150 km for larger meteoroids (in the "few cm" range - a significant fireball). There is a good but old paper here which covers fast meteors.

 

Slower meteors, usually of asteroidal origin, become visible lower down (usually around/below 100 km) and tend to look orange in colour, probably mostly due to sodium. This one a camera caught was traveling at 24.74km/s. Those are rough generalizations, and the true picture is much more complex with multiple elements/wavelengths occurring in meteor spectra.

 

 

The part of the atmosphere that meteors occur in is actually very hard to study (it's below where satellites are able to operate, and above where balloons/aircraft can go), so meteors offer one of the few ways to study that part of the atmosphere, as well as the space rocks themselves.


  • lee14 and Oddyse like this

#16 Oddyse

Oddyse

    Viking 1

  • *****
  • topic starter
  • Posts: 521
  • Joined: 20 Feb 2021

Posted 05 May 2023 - 10:36 AM

  Once again really great information, photos and links LeoUK! You should have your own forum here on the subject of meteors. I now know and understand that they always travel in a straight line and are only visible close to Earth entering our atmosphere. And appreciate how our surface winds work and the spectrum of light as meteors break up. All which you managed to discuss and explain very eloquently! I have never seen a prediction of an asteroid burning up in our atmosphere but willl look out for that also. You get addicted to these fireballs (meteors or otherwise) as you know. I will certainly be getting back to you if I have more questions and definitely send you any interesting photos I manage to take. Doubt I will ever be able to top your repertoire and knowledge though. Hope all goes well with the coronation over there. I have always liked Charles and think he will make a good King. Much better than ours.....Thanks again for all your help,  knowledge and pictures. Tennessee, USA



#17 LeoUK

LeoUK

    Vostok 1

  • -----
  • Posts: 177
  • Joined: 19 Nov 2022

Posted 05 May 2023 - 07:14 PM

Thanks for the kind words Oddyse. I had some of the best teachers when the METEOROBS mailing list was still going (archive here). No reason you can't become knowledgeable as long as you keep asking questions/looking for answers.

 

That is something those of us interested in meteors are missing right now - a dedicated forum for discussing meteors and everything related. There isn't anywhere that I'm aware of, and people with an interest are scattered all over, or not on any forum. I'm not the only one frustrated by this situation. I suppose there is the likes of Twitter, but I've never really liked social media platforms.

 

Small asteroid impact predictions have actually been around since 2008-TC3 which impacted over the Sudan in 2008, but are only just in the last few years starting to become a bit more common place, so you got here at the right time. It opens up the possibility of "asteroid impact chasing", though I prefer to observe from home currently, but if there is another good opportunity near by again I might be tempted!

 

The recent predictions have been very accurate/reliable. The most recent, which was over N. France a couple of months back was the 7th, but the 6th was a bit closer to where you are - Canada last November.

 

Charles does seem OK. I just wish the politicians would get their fingers out, but best not talk too much about politics here, or we'll not be in the good books of the mods.

 

BTW - regarding your telescope not being able to pick anything up. It's not just about magnification, but also aperture/light gathering ability. Some seriously specialized kit is required to detect meteoroids outside of our atmosphere. If I recall correctly it was only a year or two back someone was able to image the dust streams that make up the Perseid meteor shower. Most visual meteors are produced by sub-mm sized meteoroids. At Perseid velocities it takes a lot less than a gram to produce a fireball!


Edited by LeoUK, 05 May 2023 - 07:15 PM.

  • Oddyse likes this

#18 Oddyse

Oddyse

    Viking 1

  • *****
  • topic starter
  • Posts: 521
  • Joined: 20 Feb 2021

Posted 06 May 2023 - 11:53 AM

  Yep, I would trade Charles for Joe Biden any day but like you say this is not the place for politics! Amazing that a gram or less of material can cause a fireball, I am learning everyday. No, not any forums or meteor discussion locations I know of either. They are so much fun to photograph I'm surprised there not more interest. I have been on this site for years  seeing very few pictures. Gee, a basic photography setup will do it, DSLR, no tracking, no post-processing reqired, full moon okay and even with clouds if your get few breaks! As far as aperture size goes I will be sticking with my Esprit 120 refractor. So I guess I will always be limited to particles that are burning up in our atmosphere and not deep space meteors. Hope all is well and you are having some good weather over there. I am posting one last photo, recent capture with some background effects added. All my best from Tennessee USA

Attached Thumbnails

  • 0412231805_HDR~3.jpg

Edited by Oddyse, 06 May 2023 - 11:55 AM.

  • LeoUK likes this

#19 LeoUK

LeoUK

    Vostok 1

  • -----
  • Posts: 177
  • Joined: 19 Nov 2022

Posted 07 May 2023 - 05:36 PM

I agree. I'm sure many here will have an old body or two gathering dust, and it doesn't take much effort to set up and leave it running while you go off and do something else. If anyone who has an existing account here would like to, but does not have a body they can use, I have at least one 20D and a 30D I can donate, but only if it is to be used for meteors!

 

Here is a Perseid fireball from 2013 caught with 20D + 24/1.4 L - 6s @ F1.4, ISO 1600 (not cropped)

IMG_8957_l.jpg

Rather than a telescope, I would highly recommend trying a wide-normal lens. You'll have a better chance of catching a brighter meteor or fireball, the wider your FOV. Even the cheap and cheerful 50/1.8 lenses will do, although 20/1.4 or 24/1.4 would be my choice on an aps-c sensor. Better yet, just keep adding cameras, and trying to cover as much sky as possible.

 

For a change it looks like a semi-clear night at least here, so cameras are running...

 

Wishing you clear skies over there too, and lots of luck!


  • Maximumron and Oddyse like this

#20 Oddyse

Oddyse

    Viking 1

  • *****
  • topic starter
  • Posts: 521
  • Joined: 20 Feb 2021

Posted 09 May 2023 - 08:13 AM

Sir Leo, can you explain why your meteor pictures look like the object themselves whereas mine look like I am recording the remnant, tail? I re-read your post to try and gain any insight but couldn't quite figure it out. Are you able to track meteors doing long exposures? That is the only way I can figure out how your images could be so sharp. Do you post process your images? My equipment is Esprit 120 5" refractor, Canon T3i, flattener/ reducer, Alt/Az (no go-to or tracking). May not be possible with my setup but if you could give me any advice I would love to be able to take a picture that looks similar to the first or last one you posted. It seems you are recommending a camera with a wide angle lens but can I not get something close to your photos with a telescope? It is all I have ever used for taking night time photos. Understand if you do not want to divulge trade secrets!  Tennessee, USA


Edited by Oddyse, 09 May 2023 - 04:48 PM.


#21 LeoUK

LeoUK

    Vostok 1

  • -----
  • Posts: 177
  • Joined: 19 Nov 2022

Posted 10 May 2023 - 05:57 PM

No such thing as a trade secret with me. We need more competition/competitors IMHO. Meteor observers are an endangered species so any knowledge that can be passed on is a good thing.

 

I have to admit, I was puzzled by why you were getting the images you got. Perhaps we can figure out what exactly is going on with them.

 

My initial thought is that the exposures you were taking were so short, that you keep missing the meteor itself (in between exposures), so you end up with just the train.

 

How are you triggering your camera shutter, and how much time exposing vs in between exposures?

 

The time in between exposures or "dead time" is critical for meteors. For stills dead time can be a problem (less so with footage - which is one of the reasons why it's become my "default" way of imaging meteors), but I think your Canon T3i should be able to cope well and have a low dead-time - I have not used any from that series.

 

Do you have a remote/wired release that you can lock down to hold the shutter open? If not, they can be found on line for a few $.

 

Very simple to set-up/use. Set "manual" mode and "continuous", dial in a few seconds, and lock down the running lock. Depending on your cameras buffer/memory card you may need to use longer exposures before the buffer can't offload to card in time and everything slows down, but with 10+ second exposures you should have under 1s dead time.

 

Lens vs telescope shouldn't make much of a difference in this regard, but I would definitely recommend trying a lens/wider FOV anyway if you can. How wide is your current FOV and where in the sky do you aim?

 

Edit to add: I almost forgot to say, very little processing on those images, especially the first. I just removed a little light pollution using curves (photoshop) to clip the lower end of the red channel. Also, no tracking involved - just using fixed tripod/s although I do have a tracking mount. It would be hard to track meteors anyway, although Sonotaco (creators of software that monitors/records footage of meteors and other transient phenomena) over in Japan I remember seeing some footage of a very neat experimental high speed tracking system!

 

Edit to add further: One advantage with wider lenses is you can go without tracking for more time before stars start to trail. I would aim for 10s exposures as a minimum, and ideally 12-15 depending on lens/conditions. That should also be long enough that your camera can clear it's buffer. You'll have to experiment a little.


Edited by LeoUK, 10 May 2023 - 07:10 PM.

  • Oddyse likes this

#22 W5JCK

W5JCK

    Sputnik

  • -----
  • Posts: 33
  • Joined: 03 Jul 2017
  • Loc: North Texas, USA. Originally from Austin.

Posted 10 May 2023 - 09:51 PM

Oddyse,

 

I second the idea of using wide angle lenses on a camera to capture meteors. I typically use a 24mm FF FOV (field of view) or larger to capture plenty of sky. I also shoot time lapses so that I’m continuously photographing the sky for several hours which gives me a much better chance of capturing meteors. For really bright meteors, you can sometimes capture to light trail (the actual burning meteor) in one frame and the smoke trail in another. Typically you can set the camera to take 15sec exposures (just one example, varies by focal length) and perhaps capture several hundred photos during the night. You will either need a camera with a built in time lapse app or an intervalometer which costs about $25. 
 

Like Leo I also shoot video which allows me to capture some cool footage, but that takes a huge amount of storage space.

 

As far as the trails you captured, I agree with others that they look more like smoke trails left over from a burning meteor. As a meteor speeds through the atmosphere it encounters more friction as it loses altitude due to denser atmosphere. The lower the altitude, the more dense the atmosphere becomes and the more oxygen that is present. The friction eventually gets hot enough to start burning up the meteor. A fire requires 3 things: fuel, oxygen, and heat. The meteor becomes the fuel, the friction produces the heat, and the oxygen allows it to burn. Where there is fire their is usually smoke, hence the smoke trails that are sometimes visible for a while afterwards. Most meteor started out as space debris the size of a grain of sand or smaller, so it doesn’t take long for them to burn out. Some are bigger and last much longer. Big chunks of space rock can actually do serious damage like the one that exploded over Russia a few years ago with an estimated power of a half-megaton nuclear warhead. It was estimatedto be the size of a school bus, if my memory is accurate, which at my age is always suspect! ;)


  • Oddyse likes this

#23 W5JCK

W5JCK

    Sputnik

  • -----
  • Posts: 33
  • Joined: 03 Jul 2017
  • Loc: North Texas, USA. Originally from Austin.

Posted 10 May 2023 - 10:12 PM

BTW, here is a link to a Youtube video of a meteor I captured with my Sony ZV-E10 a few weeks ago. The video shows the meteor in real time first at full view the second zoomed in, it then shows the zoomed in meteor at 1/10th speed. You can see a bit of a trail left behind it as it travels through the atmosphere.



#24 lee14

lee14

    Vanguard

  • *****
  • Posts: 2,180
  • Joined: 19 Dec 2009
  • Loc: CNY

Posted 11 May 2023 - 04:29 AM

 As a meteor speeds through the atmosphere it encounters more friction as it loses altitude due to denser atmosphere. The lower the altitude, the more dense the atmosphere becomes and the more oxygen that is present. The friction eventually gets hot enough to start burning up the meteor. A fire requires 3 things: fuel, oxygen, and heat. The meteor becomes the fuel, the friction produces the heat, and the oxygen allows it to burn.

The idea that friction produces heat and subsequent oxidation as a meteor encounters atmosphere is a misconception. The source of heating is actually compression of the atmospheric molecules at the leading edge, resulting in the surface and ablated material being heated to incandescence. There may be a degree of oxidation present, but this is not the cause of the heating and visual effects. The compression and associated turbulence is what produces regmaglypts ('thumbprints'), as superheated eddies ablate the surface. It's also why orientation is a feature frequently seen, and is highly valued by collectors. Perhaps the most significant evidence pointing to compressive heating is the fusion crust, sometimes presenting with flow lines, seen on fresh falls. None of these features are explained by oxidation. A minor distinction perhaps, but that's how the heating process actually works.

 

Lee


Edited by lee14, 11 May 2023 - 07:12 AM.


#25 LeoUK

LeoUK

    Vostok 1

  • -----
  • Posts: 177
  • Joined: 19 Nov 2022

Posted 11 May 2023 - 03:38 PM

100% agree Lee. I read a paper last year (wish I could find it again) which suggested that the temperature involved was actually quite low - lower than previously thought. It makes sense when you consider that material is constantly being stripped from the meteoroid, removing heat in the process. Much like if you heat water, it will never go above 100 deg C (at sea level).

 

Apparently magnesium is implicated with the explosive nature of fragmentation events with Taurids at least, but I thought oxygen would have to be present. I probably need a refresher in chemistry!


  • lee14 likes this


CNers have asked about a donation box for Cloudy Nights over the years, so here you go. Donation is not required by any means, so please enjoy your stay.


Recent Topics






Cloudy Nights LLC
Cloudy Nights Sponsor: Astronomics